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The Relationships between Photosynthetic Capacity and Related Physiological Parameters of Some C3 and C4 Plants.
photochemical reflectance index
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Nitrogen deficiency effects on plant growth, leaf photosynthesis, and hyperspectral reflectance properties of sorghum. European Journal of Agronomy, 22:391-403.|
|摘要:||為了知悉不同葉綠素含量之葉片在不同海拔及季節之溫度及光度條件下，各相關生理參數與光合能力間之關係，本研究以C3型之芒果及赤楊、以及C4型之五節芒、台灣芒、高山芒及狼尾草等植物為材料。在不同海拔及季節之溫度條件下，選取不同葉綠素含量之葉片，先於黎明測定其光系統II之最大潛能(Fv/Fm)、光化學反射指數(PRI)及電子傳遞快速光曲線等生理參數，然後於同日在不同光度下測定其光合速率及氣孔導度。結果顯示，在相同光度及溫度條件下比較時，葉綠素含量較高者通常具有較高之光合速率、氣孔導度及電子傳遞速率，顯示葉綠素含量增加時，氣孔及非氣孔因素會同時受到促進。惟葉綠素含量與光合速率之關係會同時受到溫度及光度之影響，因此只能在相同溫度及光度條件下，以其推估光合速率。而在不同溫度下，不同葉綠素含量葉片之間，其電子傳遞快速光曲線之斜率(ΦETR)及最大值(ETRmax)之變化與最大光合速率之變化相當一致，因此將各溫度下所測得之資料合併分析時，ΦETR及ETRmax與最大或接近最大(於2,000或1,200 μmol m-2 s-1 PPFD下測得)光合速率(Pmax或P1200)之間可獲得較高之正相關。此外，在相同溫度條件下，氣孔導度與光合速率均會隨光度變化而改變，且兩者間呈極顯著之正相關。在芒草之結果更顯示，氣孔導度與光合速率間迴歸方程式之斜率會隨溫度升高而直線上升。故至少在芒草，可利用氣孔導度來推估不同葉綠素含量葉片在不同溫度及光度條件下之光合速率。而黎明Fv/Fm值及PRI值與光合能力間之關係則顯示，在16℃以下之低溫條件下因光合速率低下，兩者與P1200間迴歸方程式之斜率接近水平。當溫度上升時，其斜率會逐漸增大，在30℃以上則接近垂直。因此，黎明Fv/Fm值及PRI值在16℃以上，30℃以下之中等溫度範圍內較適合用以推估最大光合能力。以上結果顯示，氣孔導度適合用以推估不同溫度及光度條件下之光合速率，其應用範圍最廣。其次為ΦETR及ETRmax，適於推估在不同溫度條件下之Pmax或P1200。而SPAD值、黎明Fv/Fm值及PRI值可用來推估某溫度條件下之Pmax或P1200，惟在過低或過高之溫度條件下，黎明Fv/Fm值及PRI值之推估精度會變差。|
In order to understand the relationships between related physiological parameters and photosynthetic capacity of leaves with different chlorophyll concentration under the temperature and irradiance conditions of different elevations and seasons. Two C3 plants-Mangifera indica and Alnus formosana, and four C4 plants-Miscanthus floridulus, M. sinensis, M. transmorrisonensis and Pennisetum perperpum were used as materials to study. Under the temperature conditions of different elevations and seasons, leaves with different chlorophyll concentration were used for measurement. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), photochemical reflectance index (PRI), and electron transport rate of rapid light curves were measured at predawn, then photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were measured under various light intensities. Results indicated that under the same level of light intensity and temperature, leaves with higher chlorophyll concentration always had higher photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and electron transport rate. Indicating that both stomatal and non-stomatal limitations of photosynthesis were decreased parallel with chlorophyll concentration increase. However, chlorophyll concentration-photosynthetic rate relationship was affected by both temperature and light intensity. Therefore, photosynthetic rate could be assessed from chlorophyll concentration only under the condition of the same level of temperature and irradiance. On the contrary, the changes of slope (ΦETR) and maximum value (ETRmax) of rapid light curves of electron transport rate were closely related to photosynthetic rate, merging data from leaves with different chlorophyll concentration measured at 2000 or 1200 μmol m-2 s-1 PPFD under various temperature conditions. Besides, under the same level of temperature, both stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate were increased parallel with the increase of light intensity. Especially, the results of Miscanthus Spp. showed that the slope of regression equation between stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate increased straight with temperature rise. Indicating, at least for Miscanthus Spp., stomatal conductance could assess the photosynthetic rate of leaves with different chlorophyll concentration under various levels of temperature and light intensity. In addition, due to the inhibition of low temperature, slopes of regression equation between predawn Fv/Fm or PRI and P1200 at low temperature (below 16℃) were near to horizontal, and these slopes increased gradually with temperature raised, and near to vertical above 30℃. Therefore, only at the range of medium temperatures (ca. 16℃ to 30℃), predawn Fv/Fm and PRI were suitable to be used to assess the maximum photosynthetic capacity. From the above results, it was concluded that, for assess the photosynthetic rate of leaves with different levels of chlorophyll, stomatal conductance was suitable to be used to assess photosynthetic rate under various levels of temperature and light intensity. ΦETR and ETRmax were suitable to be used to assess maximum or near maximum photosynthetic rate under different levels of temperature. And Fv/Fm and PRI, measured at predawn only suitable to be used to assess maximum or near maximum photosynthetic rate under the range of medium temperatures.
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