請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/23013
標題: 乳頭棘蛛簇狀型隱帶及障礙網功能之探討
Functions of tuft decorations and barrier webs of the spiny spider Thelacantha brevispina
作者: 曾惠真
Tseng, Huei-Jen
關鍵字: barrier web
乳頭棘蛛
Thelacantha brevispina
silk tuft decoration
障礙網
隱帶
出版社: 生命科學系所
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摘要: 摘要 捕食者是影響獵物族群演化以及族群動態的重要因子,因當獵物處於強大的掠 食壓力下,會衍生出相對應的策略來防禦捕食者。相對地,這種防禦策略有可能會 對獵物的覓食產生影響,而可能會降低其覓食效率。蜘蛛是研究覓食與防禦捕食 者機制的一種良好的模式物種。蜘蛛所建構的障礙網被指出有可能做為一種提早 偵測捕食者來襲的早期預警構造,也可以用來傳遞獵物震動的訊號,因此被視為 是一種警戒裝置。另外,棘蛛則會在障礙網上另結一簇一簇的白色隱帶。已有研 究證明在其它蜘蛛類群由絲所構成之隱帶可以用來吸引獵物或者是防禦捕食者。 本研究探討乳頭棘蛛(Thelacantha brevispina)的障礙網與簇型隱帶對於獵物捕捉 效率的影響以及降低蜘蛛被捕食者攻擊的效應。我在台東縣蘭嶼鄉永興農莊進行 乳頭棘蛛野外操控性實驗,使用類似植被光訊號的顏料塗上隱帶及用線香移除障 礙網。此外,為了瞭解棘蛛體色對於覓食以及防禦捕食者的影響,也利用奇異筆 操控其體色訊號。野外實驗皆設置攝影機進行長時間的拍攝以監控蜘蛛與獵物及 捕食者之互動事件。研究結果顯示在 2010 年 5 月在樣區獵物量較低之情況下, 田野實驗中隱帶塗色組個體比移除障礙網與控制組的獵物捕捉率顯著為低,而在 2009 年 7 月樣區獵物量較高之情況下則無顯著差異。在隱帶存在的情況下,蜘 蛛塗色後的獵物捕捉率無異於控制組。胡蜂接近事件在各處理組間並無顯著差異, 而特別的是鳥類攻擊事件只發生在隱帶塗色及移除障礙網組。這些結果顯示 2010 年 5 月獵物較少時,障礙網的存在會明顯降低獵物捕捉率,但藉著構築可 吸引昆蟲之隱帶在障礙網上可以降低此負面效應。此外,胡蜂並不是乳頭棘蛛的 主要捕食者,乳頭棘蛛的障礙網及簇型隱帶可能扮演著防禦鳥類捕食者的重要角 色。
Abstract Predators are one important factor influencing the evolution and population dynamics of prey. Prey also develop numerous strategies to defense against predators. But the defense strategies may have various form of cost on prey. Spiders are a good model organism for studying the conflict of foraging and predator defense. The barrier webs of spiders have been regarded as an early-warning system that can be used to detect the vibration signal generated by predators. The East Asian spiny spiders Thelacantha brevispina place silk tuft decorations on their 3D barrier webs. Previous studies show that the silk decorations of other spider taxa function to attract prey or defense against predators. In this study, I investigate the cost and benefit of barrier webs and silk tuft decorations and how they are involved in prey capture and predator defense of T. brevispina. My field experiments were conducted in a tropical island in southern Taiwan. The presence of barrier webs and the color signal of tuft decorations were manipulated by removing the barrier webs and by painting tuft decorations to render them chromatically indistinguishable to the background. Besides, I also investigated whether the body coloration of T. brevispina can visually attract prey or predators. I altered the color signals of spider abdomens by using black paint. The interactions between T. brevispina and their prey and predators were recorded by video cameras in the field. In the presence of tuft decorations, altering the color signal of spiders did not reduce the prey capture rate of webs. In the May 2010 field experiment when prey abundance was low, prey capture rate of tuft decorations painted group was significantly lower than those of the control and barrier web removed group. However, in the July 2009 field experiment no difference in prey capture rate was found among three treatment groups. Among all treatment groups wasp approaching rate did not differ significantly and T. brevispina were rarely attacked by wasps. Bird predation iii events only occurred on spiders in webs with tuft decorations and barrier webs manipulated. My results indicate that when the abundance of prey in the environment is low, presence of barrier webs would negatively affect prey catching but tuft decoration can visually attract prey and thus could reduce such cost. My results also show that wasps are not the major predators of T. brevipina. and tuft decorations on barrier webs of T. brevipina might serve as warning signals to deter avian predators.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/23013
其他識別: U0005-0411201011064700
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0411201011064700
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