Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 日本留學生對台灣城市形象之形成與城市消費意圖之研究
The formation of and intention of consumption derived from city image - A case of visiting Japanese students in Taiwan
作者: 賴佩吟
Lai, Pei-Yin
關鍵字: Min-Hsin Huang
Su-Fang Lee
Chin-Shien Lin
出版社: 行銷學系所
引用: 1. 吳明隆 (2008)。 SPSS操作與應用:多變量分析實務。台北:五南 2. 吳明隆 (2009)。 SPSS操作與應用:問卷統計因素分析實務。台北:五南 3. 徐揚(2006)。衝出全球化競爭的重圍-台灣的城市國際行銷刻不容緩。研考雙月刊,30卷5期。 4. 吳昭怡 (2006) 。魅力香港 靠包裝行銷全世界。天下雜誌,337期。 5. 張慧心 ( 2011) 。觀光台灣的重要活路。人間福報,第五版。 6. 吳偉文 (2007) 。運用PLS探討兩岸三地千大公司經營指標之特徵。東亞論壇季刊,457卷。 7. 林震岩 (2007)。多變量分析:SPSS 的操作與應用。台北:智勝 二、 網路文獻 1. 中華民國交通部觀光局 2. 教育部網站 3. 日本國土交通省網站 三、 西文文獻 1. Alhemoud, A. M., & Armstrong, E. G. (1996). Image of tourism attractions in Kuwait. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 34 (4), 76–80. 2. Anholt, S. (2006). The Anholt-GMI city brands index: How the world sees the world’s cities. Place Branding. Vol. 2 (1), 18 –31. 3. Ashworth, G. J., & Voogd, H. (1990). Selling the City: Marketing Approaches in Public Sector Urban Planning . Belhaven Press, London, UK. 4. Ashworth, G. J., & Kavaratzis, M. (2007). Beyond the logo:Brand management for cities. Brand Management. Vol. 16 (8), 520–531. 5. Beerli, A., & Martin, J. D. (2004). Factors influencing destination image. Annals of Tourism Research.Vol. 31 (3), 657–681. 6. Baloglu, S. (1997) Relationship between Destination Images and Sociodemographic and Trip Characteristics of International Travelers. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Vol. 3 (3), 221–233. 7. Baloglu, S., & Brinberg, D. (1997). Affective images of tourism destinations. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 35 (4), 11–15. 8. Baloglu, S., & McCleary, K. W. (1999). A model of destination image formation. Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 26 (4), 868–897. 9. Bansal, H. S., & Voyer, P. A. (2000). Word of mouth processes within a services purchase decision context. Journal of Service Research, Vol. 3 (2), 166–177. 10. Bowie, D., & Buttle, F. (2004). Hospitality Marketing, an Introduction. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 11. Bramwell, B., & Rawding L. (1996). Tourism Marketing Images of Industrial Cities. Annals of Tourism Research. Vol. 23 (1), 201–221. 12. Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the competitive destination of the future. Tourism Management. Vol. 21 (1), 97–116. 13. Caldwell, N., & Freire, J. R. (2004). The differences between branding a country, a region and a city: Applying the Brand Box model. Journal of Brand Management . Vol. 12 (1), 50–61. 14. Chen, J. S., & Hsu, H. C. (2000). Measurement of Korean Tourists’ Perceived Images of Overseas Destinations. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 38 (4), 411–416. 15. Chen, P. J, & Kerstetter, D.L. (1999). International Students’ Image of Rural Pennsylvania as a Travel Destination. Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 37 (3), 256 –266. 16. Chi, C. G., & Qu, H. (2008). Examining the structural relationships of destination image, tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty:An integrated approach. Tourism Management. Vol. 29 (4), 624–636. 17. Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach for structural equation modeling. Modern Methods for Business Research, 295–336. 18. Chon, K. S. (1991). Tourism Destination Image Modification Process: Marketing Implications. Tourism Management. Vol. 12 (1), 68–72. 19. Crouch, G. I. (1994). Promotion and demand in international tourism. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. Vol. 3 (3), 109–125. 20. Dann, G. M. S. (1996). Tourists’ images of a destination— an alternative analysis. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing. Vol. 5 (1), 41–55. 21. Dunn Rossel, E. L., & Iso Ahola, S. E. (1991). Sightseeing tourists'' motivation and satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research. Vol. 18 (2), 226–237. 22. Echtner, Charlotte, & Ritchie, J. R. (1993). The Measurement of Destination Image: An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 31 (4), 3–13. 23. Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D., & Miniard, P. W. (1994).Consumer Behavior, Dryden Press. 24. Fakeye, P. C., & Crompton, J. L. (1991). Image Differences Between Prospective, First-Time, and Repeat Visitors to the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 30 (2), 10–16. 25. Faulkner, B. (1997). A model for the evaluation of national tourism destination marketing programs. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 35 (3), 23–32. 26. Fiske, S. T., & Linville, P. W. (1980). What Does the Term Schema Buy Us? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Vol. 6 (4), 543–557. 27. Fiske, S. T., & Pavelchak, M. A. (1984). Category-Based Versus Piecemeal-Based Affective Responses: Developments in Schema-Triggered Affect. In The Handbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior. New York: Guilford Press. 28. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research. Vol. 18 (1), 39–50. 29. Gartner, W. C., & Shen, J. (1992). The Impact of Tiananmen Square on China’s Tourism Image. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 30 (4), 47–52. 30. Gilmore, F. (2001). A country — Can it be repositioned? Spain— The success story of country branding . Journal of Brand Management. Vol. 9 (4–5), 281– 293. 31. Graesser, Arthur, Sallie, E.G., & Sawyer, J. D. (1979). Recognition Memory for Typical and Atypical Actions in Scripted Activities: Tests of a Script Pointer and Tag Hypothesis." Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior. Vol.18 (3), 319–332. 32. Goodrich, J. N. (1978). The Relationship Between Preferences for and Perceptions of Vacation Destinations: Application of a Choice Model. Journal of Travel Research. Vol.17 (2), 8–13. 33. Hanefors, M., & Mossberg, L. (2002). TV Travel Shows: A Pre-Taste of the Destination. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Vol.8 (3), 235–246. 34. Hankinson, G. (2001). Location branding: A study of the branding practices of 12 English cities, Journal of Brand Management. Vol. 9 (2), 127–142. 35. Hankinson, G. (2004). Relational network brands: Towards a conceptual model of place brands. Journal of Vacation Marketing. Vol. 10 (2), 109–121. 36. Helbrecht, I. (1994). Conflict, consent, cooperation: Comprehensive planning in Germany beyond market and state’, in Braun, G. O. Managing and Marketing of Urban Development and Urban Life. 37. Herstein, R., & Jaffe, E. D. (2007). The children’ s city — The transition from a negative to a positive city image. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy. Vol. 4 (1), 76–84. 38. Hirschman, E. C. & Holbrook, M. B. (1982). The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun. The journal of consumer research. Vol. 9 (9), 132–140. 39. Hirschman, E. C., Greenberg B., & Robertson, D. H. (1978). The Intermarket Reliability of Retail Image Research: An Empirical Examination. Journal of Retailing. Vol. 54 (1), 3–12. 40. Hosany, Sameer, Ekinci, Y., & Uysal, M. (2006). Destination Image and Destination Personality: An Application of Branding Theories to Tourism Places. Journal of Business Research. Vol. 59 (5), 638–642. 41. Hsu, H. H., Lu, H. P., & Hsu, C. L. (2008). Multimedia message service acceptance of pre- and post-adopters: a sociotechnical perspective. International Journal of Mobile Communications. Vol. 6 (5), 598–615. 42. Hubbard, P., & Hall, T. (1998). The Entrepreneurial City: Geographies of Politics, Regime and Representation, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. 43. Joppe, M., Martin, D. W., & Wahlen, J. (2001). Toronto Image as a Destination: A Comparative Importance-Satisfaction Analysis by Origin of Visitor. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 39 (3), 252–260. 44. Judd, Dennis, Fainstein & Susan (1999). The Tourist City. Yale University Press, New Haven/London. 45. Kavaratzis, M. (2004). From city marketing to city branding: Towards a theoretical framework for developing city brands, Place Branding, Vol. 1 (1), 58–73. 46. Keaveney, S. M., & Hunt, K. A. (1992) .Conceptualization and Operationalization of Retail Store Image: A Case of Rival Middle-Level Theories. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Vol.20 (2), 165–176. 47. Kneesel, E., Baloglu, S., & Millar, M. (2010). Gaming Destination Images: Implications for Branding. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 49, 68–78. 48. Kotler, P., Bowen, J., & Makens, J. (1999). Marketing for hospitality and tourism. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall. 49. Kruskal, J. B. (1964) . Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis. Psychometrika. Vol.29 (1), 1–27. 50. Laws, E. (1995). Tourist destination management: Issues, analysis and policies. London: Routledge. 51. Leiper, N. (1995). Some new ideas about environmental sustainability and ecotourism, and implications for strategy. Tourism and Hospitality Research: Australian and International Perspectives, 512–518. 52. Leisen, B. (2001). Image Segmentation: The Case of a Tourism Destination. Journal of Services Marketing. Vol.15 (1), 49–66. 53. Litvin, S. W., & Mouri, N. (2009). A Comparative Study of the Use of “Iconic” versus “Generic” Advertising Images for Destination Marketing. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 48 (2), 152–161. 54. Lubbe, B. (1998). Primary Image as a Dimension of Destination Image:An Empirical Assessment. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. Vol.7 (4), 21–43. 55. MacCallum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological Methods. Vol.1 (2), 130–149. 56. MacKay, K. J., & Fesenmaier, D. R. (1997). Pictorial element of destination in image formation. Annals of Tourism Research. Vol.24 (3), 537–565. 57. Mazursky, D., & Jacob, J. (1986). Exploring the Development of Store Images. Journal of Retailing. Vol.62 (2), 145 –165. 58. Mazursky, D. (1989). Past Experience and Future Tourism Decisions. Annals of Tourism Research. Vol.16 (3), 333–344. 59. McWilliams, E. G., & Crompton, J. L. (1997). An expanded framework for measuring the effectiveness of destination advertising. Tourism Management. Vol.18 (3), 127–137. 60. Milman, A., & Pizam, A. (1995). The Role of Awareness and Familiarity with a Destination: The Central Florida Case. Journal of Travel Research. Vol.33 (3), 21–27. 61. Morgan, N., Pritchard, A., & Piggott, R. (2002). New Zealand, 100% pure. The creation of a powerful niche destination brand. Journal of Brand Management. Vol. 9 (4), 335–354. 62. Nielsen, H. A. (2000). An emerging new paradigm for tourism destination marketing. In: S. Flanagan & J. Ruddy. Tourism Destination Marketing– Gaining the Competitive Edge. 49–54. 63. Oppermann, M. (2000).Tourism destination loyalty. Journal of Travel Research. Vol.39 (1), 78–84. 64. Oxenfeldt, A. R. (1974). Developing a Favorable Price-Quality Image. Journal of Retailing. Vol. 50 (4), 8–14. 65. Pender, J. (1999). Rural population growth, agricultural change and natural resource management in developing countries: a review of hypotheses and some evidence from Honduras, Environment and Production Technology Division Discussion Paper. 66. Pool, I. (1965). Effects of Cross-National Contact on National and International Images. In International Behavior: A Social-Psychological Analysis, edited by H. Kelman. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 106–129. 67. Reynolds & Gutman, J. (1984). Advertising Is Image Management. Journal of Advertising Research. Vol. 24 (1), 27–36. 68. Rittichainuwat, B. N., Qu, H., & Brown, T. J. (2001). Thailand international travel image. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly. Vol, 42 (2), 82– 95. 69. Rumelhart & Ortony, A. (1977), The Representation of Knowledge in Memory, in Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge, ed. R. C. Anderson, R. J. Shapiro, and W. E. Montague, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 99–135. 70. Schmidt, D. F., & Sherman, R. C. (1984). Memory for Persuasive Messages: Test of a Schema-Copy-Plus-Tag Model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol, 47 (1), 17–25. 71. Scott, D. R., Schewe, C. D., & Frederick, D. G. (1978). A multi-brand/ multi-attribute model of tourist state choice. Journal of Travel Research. Vol, 17 (1) 23–29. 72. Schoenbachler, C. D., Benedetto, A. D., & Kaminski, P. (1995). Destination Advertising: Assessing Effectiveness with the Split-Run Technique. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, Vol. 4 (2), 1–21. 73. Sewell & Sallie, W. (1974). Discovering and Improving Store Image. Journal of Retailing. Vol, 50 (4), 3–7. 74. Shrimp, T. A. (1989). Promotion Management and marketing Communications. The Dreyden Press, Orlando, FL. 75. Sonmez, S., Apostolopoulos, Y., & Tarlow, P. (1999). Tourism in Crisis: Managing the Effects of Terrorism. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 38 (1), 13–18. 76. Sonmez, S. F., & Sirakaya, E. (2002). A Distorted Destination Image? The Case of Turkey. Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 41 (2), 185–196. 77. Stern, E., & Krakover, S. (1993). The Formation of a Composite Urban Image. Geographical Analysis. Vol (25), 130–146. 78. Tasci, A. D. A., & Gartner, W. C. (2007). Destination Image and Its Functional Relationships, Journal of Travel Research. Vol. 45 (4), 413–425. 79. Van der Veen, R. (2008). Analysis of the Implementation of celebrity Endorsement as a Destination Marketing Instrument. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing. Vol. 24 (2), 213–222. 80. Ward, S. V. (1998). Selling Places: The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities, London, UK, 1850–2000. 81. Wixom, B. H., & Watson, H. J. (2001). An empirical investigation of the factors affecting data warehousing success. MIS Quarterly. Vol.25 (1), 17–41. 82. Woodside, A. G., & Lysonski, S. (1989). A General Model of Traveler Destination Choice. Journal of Travel Research. Vol.17 (4), 8–14. 83. Wold, H. (1982). Soft Modelling : The Basic Design and some Extensions. Systems Under Indirect Observation, Part II. Amsterdam. 84. Zaichkowsky, J. L. (1985). Measuring the Involvement Construct. Journal of Consumer Research. Vol. 12 (3), 341–352.
摘要: 近幾年城市行銷已經逐漸被重視與實行,「城市競爭力」逐漸取代「國家競爭力」。城市的國際行銷的對象包含了外國觀光客、商務旅客、留學生、移民、中短期工作者,然而觀光企業主、公共部門和研究學者對上述各類型國際觀光客之裡瞭解仍不足亦不深。本研究目的即在(1)探討日本來台學生對台灣城市形象之形成,以及所形成之城市形象如何影響其形象態度與消費行為意圖;(2)透過實際比較「屬性計算法」和「類別比較法」兩種不同路徑所形成之城市形象以探討其間之差異並進一步闡釋其學術及實務意義。 本研究針對台北、台中、高雄三個城市內大學附設華語中心之日本留學生進行立意抽樣調查,共計156位受測者完成問卷之填答。除了以PLS分析方法來探討城市形象來源機制影響城市形象態度與城市消費意圖之線性結構外,並進一步以多元尺度分析受測者對於台灣四個主要城市(台北、台中、台南、高雄)之空間分布知覺圖。 研究結果發現:城市形象來源機制對受測者之城市形象態度的影響情形,會依是否為其旅居城市而有所不同。其中,自然發展機制形象來源對其旅居城市之形象態度皆具顯著影響;相反地,對其非旅居城市之形象態度則皆不具顯著影響。另一方面,自主機制形象來源則對受測者之城市形象態度皆不具顯著影響。 比較旅居不同台灣城市之受測者的城市知覺圖後發現:相對於「屬性計算法」路徑分析所產生之城市知覺圖,藉由「類別比較法」路徑分析所產生之知覺圖的城市分布情形,明顯較為穩定且一致。透過此結論可以給觀光企業主、公共部門建議:若想瞭解遊客對城市的態度,不能只透過既定化的屬性來衡量,同時應瞭解遊客對城市在整體上與其它城市的知覺差異,才能瞭解遊客對於城市形象的態度,並進一步推估其對城市之消費意圖。
The issue of destination marketing has been gradually emphasized and discussed in city - rather than country - perspective recently. The international target customers of city include foreign tourists, business travelers, foreign students, immigrants, and short- term workers. However, these groups around Taiwan today are too specific to be deeply understood by tourism business owners, public sectors, and research scholar. The purposes of this research are (1) to investigate how Japanese students in Taiwan form their city image and how to affect the attitude of the ircity and consumption intention;(2) to compare two approaches of city image formation (i,e., piecemeal-based and category-based) and to discuss the difference between the two approaches in academic and practical meanings. These research samples of this study consist of 156 Japanese who have registered as students of Chinese as second foreign language program in universities located in Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung city. The mechanism and perceptual maps of respondents' city image formation is analyzed by the linear structure equation model (PLS) and Multi-Dimension Scales (SPSS), respectively. The results of this study revealed that the respondents' image formation mechanism various among different cities. The autonomous formation agent has significant impact on the attitude of the city image to the city they lived. On the other hand, the respondents will not rely on the organic formation agents to form the attitude of the city image no matter they are residents or not. The results also showed that the perceptual maps developed through the “category-based” approach are more stable and consistent than those developed though the “piecemeal-based” approach. The findings contribute to the understanding of tourists' attitude toward a city and provide tourism business owner and public sectors that we should measure not only tourists' attitude by formulated attributes, we should also beware that holistic difference between cities.
其他識別: U0005-2107201115324400
Appears in Collections:行銷學系所



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.