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標題: 三瘤糞金龜與紅斑糞金龜雄蟲形態二型性及其生殖生態
Male dimorphism and breeding ecology of Onthophagus trituber Wiedeman and Onthophagus proletarius Harold
作者: 留淑娟
Liu, Shu-Chuan
關鍵字: dung beetle
出版社: 生命科學院碩士在職專班
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摘要: 糞金龜(dung beetle)主要是以哺乳類動物的糞便為食物之甲蟲,為生態系中重要的糞便分解者。地道型的糞金龜(tunnelers; paracoprids)會將糞便搬進地道巢室中食用或作為育幼用。本研究之二種供試昆蟲即屬地道型的糞金龜,分別為三瘤糞金龜(Onthophagus trituber Wiedeman)及紅斑糞金龜(Onthophagus proletarius Harold)。本研究之目的為探討這二種糞金龜雄蟲形態二型性及其生殖生態。結果發現供試的二種糞金龜皆有性別二型性(dimorphism),雄成蟲頭上有角,而雌成蟲則無角;在雄性糞金龜中又有形態二型性,體型較大的雄成蟲有角,體型較小的雄成蟲則短角或無角。此二種糞金龜在較細的砂土(0.1 mm ~0.3 mm及小於0.1 mm)築巢環境中,可製造較多的育兒糞團(brood mass),所以在較細的砂土中築巢生殖成功度較高。在生殖生態方面,供試二種糞金龜成蟲不同體型之雌雄配對,育兒糞團的數目多寡與親代體型大小無顯著相關。體型較大且有角的雄蟲協助雌蟲築巢,會顯著增加育兒糞團的體積及重量。若交配完即移走雄蟲,在無雄蟲幫忙的情況下,育兒糞團的重量則與雌蟲體型大小成正比。此二種糞金龜之子代前胸背板寬皆與其育兒糞團的體積成正比。所以,體型較大的雄蟲與雌蟲配對能製造較大的育兒糞團,而較大的育兒糞團能培育出體型較大的子代。因此,這二種糞金龜的雌雄成蟲合作築巢之行為表現皆可增加其生殖成功度。
Dung beetles, using mammalian excrements feces as food, are important scavengers in the ecosystem. Two tested common species of dung beetles which belong to tunnelers are Onthophagus trituber Wiedeman and Onthophagus proletarius Harold. The tunnelers remove dung fragments from the pad and pack them into the tunnels as food for themselves and their offspring. The objectives of this study are to investigate the male dimorphism and breeding ecology of O. trituber and O. proletarius. The results indicated that O. trituber and O. proletarius were sexually dimorphic-horned males and hornless females. Males were dimorphic: larger males possessing long horns on the head and wider pronotum while smaller males with short horns or hornless. Comparing with sand particles of 0.3~1.0 mm, O. trituber and O. proletarius produced more brood masses when they construct tunnels in the environment with sand of 0.1~0.3 mm and <0.1 mm particle size. It represented that there was higher reproductive success for these two species making use of smaller sand particles. In breeding ecology, there was no significant correlation between the number of brood masses and parental body size. Large horned males paired with females through cooperation during brood mass production could increase the volume and weight of their brood masses. The weight of brood masses was positively associated with female body sizes when mated females didn't have male's assistance. There was positive correlation between the volume of brood masses and the pronotum width of progeny. So, large male and female pairs produced larger brood masses and offspring with large body size. In conclusion, the cooperation of males and females during brood mass production could increase the reproductive success for O. trituber and O. proletarius.
其他識別: U0005-2607200721411600
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