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Evolution of heterochromatic regions in the long arm of maize B chromosome
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|摘要:||本研究分別以CL-repeat的南方雜合訊號以及因缺失、插入和突變造成的序列變異兩個角度，來探討玉米B染色體長臂遠端異染色質(distal heterochromatin, DH) 區的起源。利用一系列的B-10L易位染色體所產生的三級三染體和亞倍體，可以判斷CL-repeat訊號及其變異產物在三個遠端異染色質區(DH1, DH2, DH3)上的分布位置。在B染色體上以南方雜合分析觀察到20個訊號，並分別將其定位於特定的異染色質區。分析自三個遠端異染色質區分離的變異產物，發現其中包含有四種缺失、ㄧ種插入以及許多的突變序列。利用其中27個突變序列建立同源演化樹，發現這些序列分為三群，且各群分別可以對應到特定的異染色質區，據此可以推論出三個異染色質區的演化次序。根據此同源演化樹，推論最早出現的異染色質區是DH2，接著是DH3，最後是DH1。此推論可分別從三個異染色質區上的CL-repeat南方雜合訊號與變異產物的數量與分布獲得證實。|
The origin of the heterochromatic regions on the long arm of maize B chromosome was studied in two ways: the Southern signals of the CL-repeat; and its deletion, insertion, and mutation variants. Using tertiary trisomes and hypoploids of a set of B-10L translocations, the CL-repeat signals and the variants in each of the three distal heterochromatic (DH) regions were identified. Twenty Southern signals were observed in the B chromosome, and each was assigned to an individual DH region. Four deletions, one insertion and a large number of mutation variants from each of the three DH regions were isolated and sequenced. The sequences of 27 mutation variants were used to generate a phylogenetic tree which divided the 27 variants into three branches, each of which was associated with a distinct DH region, and elucidated an evolution order of the three DH regions. According to the tree, the DH2 was the earliest DH region, which gave rise to the DH3 to be followed by the DH1. The distribution of the Southern signals and structure variants in the three DH regions were consistent with such evolution process.
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