Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/23555
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dc.contributor施習德zh_TW
dc.contributor劉莉蓮zh_TW
dc.contributor林仲平zh_TW
dc.contributor邱郁文zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisor高孝偉zh_TW
dc.contributor.author蔡奇立zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorTsai, Chi-Lien_US
dc.contributor.other中興大學zh_TW
dc.date2013zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T07:20:40Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T07:20:40Z-
dc.identifierU0005-0102201213070600zh_TW
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dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/23555-
dc.description.abstract本論文旨在探討臺灣產陸生柄眼目蛞蝓之系統分類學與親緣關係,臺灣目前已記錄柄眼目蛞蝓有黏液蛞蝓科(Philomycidae)、野蛞蝓科(Agriolimacidae)、高山蛞蝓科(Anadenidae)與歐洲蛞蝓科(Arionidae) 共4科9種。 在黏液蛞蝓科部分,於臺灣及離島135個採樣點中,共記錄5種黏液蛞蝓(Meghimatium bilineatum, M. pictum, M. baoshanense, M.fruhstorferi and M. burchi)。比較這5種黏液蛞蝓差異,除體型最大的M. fruhstorferi與體型最小的M. burchi外,3種中體型黏液蛞蝓(M. bilineatum, M. baoshanense and M. pictum)差異主要在生殖腺,M. baoshanense在儲精囊管基部有10-18乳狀突起和輸精管細且長;M. bilineatum 陰道幾乎完全消失而M. baoshanense 和 M. pictum的陰道介於短至中等長度間。從頷的特徵來看, M. fruhstorferi頷形式與Philomycus屬的黏液蛞蝓的頷形式一致,為單一片拱型,而另4種Meghimatium則為多片拱型。 以粒線體細胞色素C氧化酶次單元I基因(COI)、16S核糖體RNA基因(16S) 與核28S 核糖體RNA基因(28S)序列建構巨黏液蛞蝓屬(Meghimatium)的親緣關係樹顯示,巨黏液蛞蝓屬蛞蝓之分子親緣關係分群與其生殖腺形式一致,其中M. fruhstorferi、M. burchi、M. uniforme和M. striatum 複合群與M. baoshanense 各形成4個單系群,分別有中至高的統計支持度。M. pictum 分群是併系群,但卻與M. bilineatum呈單系群,M. pictum成熟標本的生殖腺皆具較長的陰道,不似M. bilineatum 僅具很短或缺的陰道。此外,M. pictum標本皆被採自天然森林底層,而M. bilineatum則都採自農業區域中。 在山蛞蝓體色比較,臺灣產山蛞蝓依COI+16S+28S親緣樹形圖可分為5群:clades C、S、N、A及CS,其中clades C與S分布於台灣中央山脈東側,體背部不具背中線條紋,且足部顏色多呈暗灰黑色;clades N與A分布則屬台灣西部與北部,體背部則具背中線條紋,且足部顏色多呈淡黃色。此外,部分clade S的山蛞蝓標本體兩側缺寬幅縱黑帶;日本產山蛞蝓可分為3群:clades J1、J2-1與J2-2,體背部則具背中線條紋與體兩側具寬幅縱黑帶。 在臺灣19個採集地90個標本中,僅記錄Deroceras laeve與 D. reticulatum兩種野蛞蝓,沒有發現D. varians和D. agreste。 在高山蛞蝓科部分,於桃園縣拉拉山自然保留區發現1種被列為中國紅皮書瀕危蛞蝓之等陽高山蛞蝓(Anadeninus parvipenis)。從COII親緣樹形圖來看,歐洲蛞蝓科並無與高山蛞蝓科形成一單系群,反而與黏液蛞蝓科呈一單系群,其節點具很高的統計支持度,結果支持Wiktor et al. (2000)將原屬於歐洲蛞蝓科中的高山蛞蝓亞科(Anadeninae),提升至「科」的層級。 在歐洲蛞蝓科部分,臺灣目前僅在武陵農場附近發現雙線歐洲蛞蝓(Arion distinctus)。此種常見於歐洲中部與西部,建議本種須儘速進行移除工作。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe dissertation concerns the systematics and phylogeny of terrestrial stylommatophoran slugs in Taiwan. Currently, there are nine species, representing four families of stylommatophoran slugs (Philomycidae, Agriolimacidae, Anadenidae and Arionidae) recorded in Taiwan. In the family Philomycidae, there were 336 specimens of five Meghimatium species (M. bilineatum, M. pictum, M. baoshanense, M. fruhstorferi and M. burchi) sampled from 135 geographical localities in Taiwan and offshore islands. Besides larger M. fruhstorferi and smaller M. burchi, a comparison of the three medium-sized Meghimatium species (M. bilineatum, M. baoshanense and M. pictum) showed that M. baoshanense has 10-18 papilla at the lower end of the spermathecal duct and a thin and long vas deferens. The vagina of M. bilineatum is almost completely reduced and hardly noticeable, whereas the vagina of M. baoshanense and M. pictum are short to moderately long. Examing their jaw morphology, the jaw of Meghimatium fruhstoferi is arcuate with fine striae that is similar to those of the American Philomycus species. The jaw of the other four Meghimatium species is 22-28 or 12-16 fused plates. Phylogenetic analyses using concatenated DNA sequences of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I, 16S ribosomal RNA and nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA genes revealed that clades in the resulting molecular phylogeny of Meghimatium are largely congruent with taxa identified on the basis of their genitalia. Four monophyletic groups, i.e., the M. fruhstorferi, M. burchi, M. uniforme and M. striatum complexes, M. baoshanense, with moderate to strong branch supports were identified. M. pictum is paraphyletic and is clustered with M. bilineatum to constitute another monophyletic group. Based on the phylogenetic tree, M. pictum from China, Thailand, Matsu Island was paraphyletic, but the mature specimens from these populations consistently had a moderately long vagina, while those of M. bilineatum the vagina was very short or absent. All M. pictum specimens were collected from natural forests, while all M. bilineatum specimens were collected from agricultural areas. Taiwanese M. fruhstorferi was divided into 5 genetic clades (clades C, S, N, A and CS) in the COI+16S+28S phylogenetic tree corresponding to their body colors. Clades C and S belong to M. fruhstorferi of eastern Taiwan that lacks a irregular median dosal streak and the foot-sole is gray or dark gray. Clades N and A belong to M. fruhstorferi of western and northern Taiwan that have a irregular median dosal streak and the foot-sole is usually yellowish. Some specimens of M. fruhstorferi in clade S lack broad black irregular lateral bands. Japanese M. fruhstorferi was divided into three clades (clades J1, J2-1 and J2-2) that have a irregular median dosal streak and broad black irregular lateral bands. In the family Agriolimacidae, there were only 2 Deroceras species (D. laeve and D. reticulatum) sampled from 90 specimens of 19 geographical localities in Taiwan, but D. varians and D. agreste were not found. In the family Anadenidae, Anadeninus parvipenis, an endangered species of China Red List, is recorded for the first time in Lalashan Forest Reserve of Taiwan. The results of the COII phylogenetic tree support the proposal of Wiktor et al. (2000) to raise the subfamily Anadeninae to the family rank as Anadenidae. In the family Arionidae, Arion distinctus, a common species found all over the west and central Europe, was recorded for the first time in Wuling Farm of Taiwan. It is recommended to remove this invasive species from Taiwan as soon as possible.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents摘要 …………………………………………………………………………...... i Abstract ………………………………………………………………………..... iii 目次 …………………………………………………………………………….. v 表目 …………………………………………………………………………..… viii 圖目 ……………………………………………………………………..……… ix 第一章 臺灣陸生蛞蝓分類、文獻回顧與研究現況 …….…….……………… 1 摘要 …………………………………………………………………………. 1 一、 蛞蝓的分類 ……..………………………………….…………………. 1 二、臺灣蛞蝓文獻回顧與現況 …………..……………….……………….. 2 三、蛞蝓種的概念 …………………………………………………………. 6 四、遺傳標記在陸生蝸牛分類親緣之應用 ………………………………. 7 五、 臺灣蛞蝓研究面臨的問題與研究動機 …………….………………… 8 第二章 黏液蛞蝓科之形態分類學研究 …...……………….………………… 18 摘要 …………………………………………………………………………. 18 一、 前言 …………………………………………………………………… 18 二、 材料與方法 …………………………………………………………… 19 (一) 標本來源 ……………………………………...…………………… 19 (二) 生殖腺解剖與齒舌、頷電子顯微鏡觀察比較 …………………… 20 (三) 形態特徵親緣分析 ………………………………………………… 20 三、 結 果 …………………………………..……………………………… 20 (一) 亞洲產黏液蛞蝓形態分類描述 …………………………………… 21 (二) 美洲產黏液蛞蝓形態分類描述 …………………………………… 25 (三) 形態特徵親緣樹 …………………………………………………… 34 四、 討 論 ……..…………………………………………………………… 34 (一) 生殖腺形式比較 ..……………………..…………………………… 34 (二) 齒舌與頷之比較 …………………………………………………… 35 (三) 形態親緣樹與分類比較 …………………………………………… 36 (四) 檢索表 ……………………………………………………………… 36 第三章 亞洲產巨黏液蛞蝓屬分子親緣關係 …..…………………………….. 60 摘要 …………………………………………………………………………. 60 一、 前言 …………………………………………………………………… 60 二、 材料與方法 …………………………………………………………… 61 (一) 標本來源與保存 …………..……………………….……………… 61 (二) DNA抽取、聚合酶連鎖反應放大與定序 …………..……………… 61 (三) DNA序列分析 …..…….…………………………………………… 62 (四) 親緣分析 ……………….…………………………………………... 63 三、 結果 …………………………………………………………………… 63 (一) 核酸序列組成與變異 ……………………………………………… 63 (二) 親緣分析 …………………………………………………………… 64 四、 討論 …………………………………………………………………… 65 第四章 臺灣與日本產山蛞蝓體色特徵與分子親緣關係 …………………… 71 摘要 …………………………………………………………………………. 71 一、 前言 …………………………………………………………………… 71 二、 材料與方法 …………………………………………………………… 72 (一) 標本來源與保存 …….………………………….……..…………… 72 (二) 體色花紋比較 ……………………………………………………… 72 (三) DNA抽取、聚合酶連鎖反應放大與定序 ……….………..……… 73 (四) DNA序列分析 ………………………………….………………..… 73 (五) 親緣分析 …………………………………………………………… 74 三、 結果 …………………………………………………………………… 75 (一) 體色花紋比較 ……………………………………………………… 75 (二) 核酸序列組成與變異 …….………………….…..………………… 75 (三) 山蛞蝓的親緣分析與地理分布 …..…….………………………… 76 四、 討論 ……………..……..……………………………………………… 77 第五章 臺灣產野蛞蝓科系統分類學與分子親緣關係 ……………………… 94 摘要 …………………………………………………………………………. 94 一、 前言 ………..…………………..……………………………………… 94 二、 材料與方法 ………………………..………..………………………… 95 (一) 標本來源 ………..…………….…….……………………………… 95 (二) 生殖腺解剖觀察比較 ……..…………….…….…………………… 95 (三) DNA抽取、聚合酶連鎖反應放大與定序 ….………….…………… 95 (四) DNA序列分析 …………….………………….……….…………… 96 (五) 親緣分析 .………..…………………………….…………………… 96 三、 結果 …………..……………………………………..………………… 97 (一) 各種野蛞蝓相關形態資料描述 …………..….………….………… 97 (二) 核酸序列組成與變異 ……………………………………………… 98 (三) 分子親緣分析 ………….………………..….……………………… 99 四、 討論 …………………………………………….……………………… 99 第六章 三種高山蛞蝓之形態特徵與分子親緣關係之比較 …..…..………… 105 摘要 …………………………………………………………………………. 105 一、 前言 …………..……………………………………………..………… 105 二、 材料與方法 …………………………………………………………… 106 (一) 標本來源與保存 ……………..………..…………………………… 106 (二) DNA抽取、聚合酶連鎖反應放大與定序 …….….………………… 106 (三) DNA序列分析 ……….……….…………………….……………… 107 (四) 親緣分析 …………………………………………………………… 107 三、 結果 ……………………………………….…………………………… 108 (一) 三種高山蛞蝓形態分類描述 …………...……….………………… 108 (二) 序列分析 ………………...………………………………….……… 110 (三) 親緣分析 …………………………………………………………… 110 四、 討論 …………………………………………….……………………… 110 第七章 總結 …………………………………………………………………… 115 參考文獻 ……………..………………………………………………………… 117 附錄……………………………………………………………………………….. 127zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher生命科學系所zh_TW
dc.subject16S ribosomal RNA geneen_US
dc.subject16S核糖體RNA基因zh_TW
dc.subject28S ribosomal RNA geneen_US
dc.subjectAgriolimacidaeen_US
dc.subjectAnadenidaeen_US
dc.subjectArionidaeen_US
dc.subjectcytochrome c oxidase subunit I geneen_US
dc.subjectcytochrome c oxidase subunit II geneen_US
dc.subjectPhilomycidaeen_US
dc.subjectphylogenyen_US
dc.subjectsystematicsen_US
dc.subject28S 核糖體RNA基因zh_TW
dc.subject細胞色素C氧化酶次單元I基因zh_TW
dc.subject細胞色素C氧化酶次單元II基因zh_TW
dc.subject黏液蛞蝓科zh_TW
dc.subject野蛞蝓科zh_TW
dc.subject高山蛞蝓科zh_TW
dc.subject歐洲蛞蝓科zh_TW
dc.subject系統分類學zh_TW
dc.subject親緣關係zh_TW
dc.title臺灣產陸生柄眼目蛞蝓之系統分類與親緣關係zh_TW
dc.titleSystematics and phylogeny of terrestrial stylommatophoran slugs in Taiwanen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
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