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標題: 南台灣黃灰澤蟹和屏東澤蟹的成長、行為與背甲顏色之比較
Growth, behavior and body color comparison between Geothelphusa albogilva and G. pingtung from southern Taiwan
作者: 張幼佳
Chang, Yu-Chia
關鍵字: Geothelphusa albogilva
G. pingtung
growth rate
出版社: 生命科學系所
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摘要: 本研究比較南台灣兩種大型澤蟹: 黃灰澤蟹 (Geothelphusa albogilva) 和屏東澤蟹 (G. pingtung) 之體型、水流沖擊實驗與體色。成蟹方面, 黃灰澤蟹每次脫殼成長幅度大於屏東澤蟹 (平均 3.01 mm vs. 1.97 mm); 稚蟹方面, 黃灰澤蟹每次脫殼成長幅度也大於屏東澤蟹 (平均 2.31 mm vs. 2.09 mm), 而兩種澤蟹的稚蟹個體脫殼比例和頻率都高於成蟹 (黃灰澤蟹: 96 % vs. 4 %,; 屏東澤蟹: 83 % vs. 17 %), 可能由於成蟹成長幅度較大, 脫殼間隔時間較長, 也可能還需將能量投注於生殖, 因此脫殼次數無稚蟹頻繁。此外, 黃灰澤蟹脫殼比例較屏東澤蟹高 (40% vs. 30%), 且屏東澤蟹較容易脫殼失敗。成長率不同除了本身因素外, 也推測可能與棲地水文有關。黃灰澤蟹棲地終年有水, 屏東澤蟹棲地冬季乾涸, 因此成長策略不同; 終年有水的溪流環境導致黃灰澤蟹脫殼個體的比例較高, 脫殼時間也較為頻繁。水流衝擊實驗加入蔡氏澤蟹 (G. tsayae) 作比較, 在 2.6 m/s 的流速下, 黃灰澤蟹開始聚集時間短於屏東澤蟹和蔡氏澤蟹 (平均分別為 7.3秒, 9.6秒, 14.5 秒); 聚集隻數比例, 黃灰澤蟹高於屏東澤蟹和蔡氏澤蟹 (平均分別為 80%, 72%, 72%); 水停後的散開時間, 黃灰澤蟹晚於屏東澤蟹和蔡氏澤蟹 (平均分別為 20.34秒, 6.68秒, 5.08 秒), 顯示黃灰澤蟹較容易因水流而聚集, 且水流流速越高, 聚集行為越明顯。推論其原因為屏東澤蟹之棲地易受洪水影響, 演化出聚集行為可增加生存機率, 在棲地環境中若遇到洪水或大雨, 螃蟹藉由抓攫其他外物或彼此抓聚以避免單一個體被水流沖往下游。終年有水的棲地可能導致黃灰澤蟹脫殼較屏東澤蟹頻繁, 且聚集行為也比較明顯。以三原色 RGB 量化背甲體色, 結果顯示兩種澤蟹呈現類似的體色變化趨勢: 體色與體型大小有關 (p < 0.05), 與性別無關 (p > 0.05)。且將兩種澤蟹體色用群聚分析各區分出五群, 了解體色變異的程度, 和每群在族群中所佔的比例。由於小個體需躲避捕食者, 暗淡的體色具保護作用; 大個體體色多變化可能與生殖求偶或其他環境因子有關。 關鍵字: 黃灰澤蟹、屏東澤蟹、蔡氏澤蟹、脫殼、成長率、聚集行為、體色。
This study compared the growth, water impact behavior and color of two large-sized Geothelphusa (G. albogilva and G. pingtung) from southern Taiwan. Adult G. albogilva grew larger than G. pingtung (mean 3.01 mm vs. 1.97 mm); juvenile G. albogilva also grew larger than G. pingtung (mean 2.31 mm vs. 2.09 mm); juvenile percentage and frequence of molt were higher than adult (G. albogilva: 96 % vs. 4 %; G. pingtung: 83 % vs. 17 %), it could be adult growth rate higher than juvenile, therefore molting interval were longer, it also could be adult have to pay more energy on reproduction, result in frequence of molt. Moreover, G. albogilva molting frequence higher than G. pingtung (40% vs. 30%,), G. pingtung difficult to molt, and easy to fail. The differen growth rate may be due to there were different species or the hydrology of habitat. G. albogilva habitat with year-round water make it molt frequently, G. pingtung habitat was dry in winter, which eventually affect the different growth strategies. In the water impact behavior, compared with G. tsayae. Flow rate 2.6 m/s, the beginning of aggregating time of G. albogilva was faster than G. pingtung and G. tsayae (mean 7.3 s, 9.6 s, 14.5 s, respectively); percentage of aggregation of G. albogilva was higher than G. pingtung and G. tsayae (mean 80%, 72%, 72%, respectively); dispersal time after flow stops of G. albogilva was faster than G. pingtung and G. tsayae (mean 20.34 s, 6.68 s, 5.08 s, respectively). It is suggested G. albogilva are easily aggregated when they meet the water flow, which may help the surviorship of G. albogilva because its habitat is easily affected by floods. Crabs may grab objects or hold each other together to avoid the possibility to wash downstream by floods. Habitat with year-round water could increase the molt frequency and degree of aggregation of G. albogilva compared to G. pingtung. Three primary colors RGB were used to quantify color. Both two crabs showed similar patterns in color variation: color and body size are related significantly (p < 0.05), but not related with the sex (p > 0.05). Use cluster analysis to classify body color, and two species were divided into five groups, distintegrated of the degree of color variation and every group in proportion. The dark color of juveniles is suggested to avoid predators, and the variable color of adult may be related with courtship or other environment factors. Keywords: Geothelphusa albogilva, G. pingtung, growth rate, aggregation, color
其他識別: U0005-0202201220170400
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