Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/23810
標題: 獵物營養成分及振動訊號對人面蜘蛛的絲及網性質之影響
The effects of prey nutrient and vibration signal on silk and web properties of giant wood spider Nephila pilipes
作者: 曾怡璇
Tseng, Yi-Hsuan
關鍵字: spider
蜘蛛
silk
web
prey nutrient
vibration signal
handling


獵物營養
振動訊號
處理經驗
出版社: 生命科學系所
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Plasticity in extended phenotypes: orb web architectural responses to variations in prey parameters. J. Exp. Biol. 213: 3207-3212 Blamires, S.J., Chao, I.C., Liao, C.P. & Tso, I.M. 2011. Multiple prey cues induce foraging flexibility in a trap-building predator. Anim. Behav. 81: 955-961. Blamires, S.J., Chao, I.C. & Tso, I.M. 2010. Prey type, vibrations and handling interactively influence spider silk expression. J. Exp. Biol. 213: 3906-3910 Crews, S.C. & Opell, B.D. 2006. The features of capture threads and orb-webs produced by unfed Cyclosa turbinata (araneae: araneidae). J. Arachnol. 34: 427-434 Foelix, R.F. 1996. Biology of spiders. Oxford University Press. New York Gatesy, J., Hayashi, C.Y., Motriuk, D., Woods, J. & Lewis, R.V. 2001. Extreme diversity, conservation, and convergence of spider silk fibroin sequences. Science 291: 2603-2605 Heim, M., Keerl, D. & Scheibel, T. 2009. Spider silk: from soluble protein to extraordinary fiber. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48: 3584-3596 Herberstein, M.E. & I.M. Tso. 2000. Evaluation of formulae to estimate the capture area and mesh height of orb webs (Araneoidea: Araneae). J. Arachnol. 28:180-184. Higgins, L.E., Townley, M.A., Tillinghast, E.K. & Rankin, M.A. 2001. Variation in the chemical composition of orb webs built by the spider Nephila clavipes (araneae, tetragnathidae). J. Arachnol. 29: 82-94 Hogg, R.V. & Craig, A.T. 1995. Mathematical Statistics, 5th ed., Prentice Hall, pp. 251-252 Liao, C.P., Chi, K.J. & Tso, I.M. 2009. The effects of wind on trap structural and material properties of a sit-and-wait predator. Behav. Ecol. 20: 1194-1203 Maxence S. 2007. Western black widow spiders express state-dependent web-building strategies tailored to the presence of neighbours. Anim. Behav. 73: 865-875 Nakata, K. 2007. Prey detection without successful capture affects spider's orb-web building behaviour. Naturwissenschaften 94: 853-857 Nakata, K. 2008. Spiders use airborne cues to respond to flying insect predators by building orb-web with fewer silk thread and larger silk decorations. Ethology 114: 686-692 Nakata, K. & Ushimaru, A. 1999. Feeding experience affects web relocation and investment in web threads in an orb-web spider, Cyclosa argenteoalba. Anim. Behav. 57: 1251-1255 Nie, N.H., Bent, D. & Hull, C.H. 2008. SPSS Statistics 17.0.0. Nikiski, Alaska. Polar Engineering and Consulting Opell, B.D. & Hendricks, M.L. 2007. Adhesive recruitment by the viscous capture threads of araneoid orb-weaving spiders. J. Exp. Biol. 210: 553-560 Opell, B.D. & Hendricks, M.L. 2009. The adhesive delivery system of viscous capture threads spun by orb-weaving spiders. J. Exp. Biol. 212: 3026-3034. Opell, B.D. & Hendricks, M.L. 2010. The role of granules within viscous capture threads of orb-weaving spiders. J. Exp. Biol. 213: 339-346 Opell, B.D., Lipkey, G.K., Hendricks, M.L. & Vito, S.T. 2009. Daily and seasonal changes in the stickiness of viscous capture threads in Argiope aurantia and Argiope trifasciata orb-webs. J. Exp. Zool. 311A: 217-225 Opell, B.D., Markley, B.J., Hannum, C.D. & Hendricks, M.L. 2008. The contribution of axial fiber extensibility to the adhesion of viscous capture threads spun by orb-weaving spiders. J. Exp. Biol. 211: 2243-2251 Opell, B.D. & Schwend H.S. 2007. The effect of insect surface features on the adhesion of viscous capture threads spun by orb-weaving spiders. J. Exp. Biol. 210: 2352-2360 Opell, B.D. & Schwend H.S. 2008. Persistent stickiness of viscous capture threads produced by araneoid orb-weaving spiders. J. Exp. Zool. 309A: 11-16 Pan, Z.J. & Liu, M. 2009. Effects of drawing speed and water on microstructure and mechanical properties of artificially spun spider dragline silk. Fiber. Polym. 10 : 285-289 Pasquet, A., Ridwan, A. & Leborgne, R. 1994. Presence of potential prey affects web-building in an orb-weaving spider Zygiella x-notata. Anim. Behav. 47: 477-480 Sahni, V., Blackledge, T.A. & Dhinojwala, A. 2010. Viscoelastic solids explain spider web stickiness. Nat. Commun. 1:19 doi:10.1038/ncomms1019 Townley, M.A., Tillinghast, E.K. & Neefus C.D. 2006. Changes in composition of spiders orb web sticky droplets with starvation and web removal, and synthesis of sticky droplet compounds. J. Exp. Biol. 209: 1463-1486 Tso, I.M., Chiang, S.Y. & Blackledgy, T.A. 2007. Does the giant wood spider Nephila pilipes respond to prey variation by altering web or silk properties? Ethology 113: 324-333 Tso, I.M., Wu, H.C. & Hwang, I.R. 2005. Giant wood spider Nephila pilipes alters silk protein in response to prey variation. J. Exp. Biol. 208: 1053-1061 Venner, S., Pasquet, A. & Leborgne, R. 2000. Web-building behaviour in the orb-weaving spider Zygiella x-notata: influence of experience. Anim. Behav. 59: 603-611 Vollrath, F., Madsen, B. & Shao, Z. 2001. The effect of spinning conditions on the mechanics of a spiders' dragline silk. Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 268: 2339-2346
摘要: 蜘蛛捕捉獵物的方式是利用自身生產之蜘蛛絲建構蜘蛛網。而蜘蛛網上主要之放射狀縱絲可以傳遞獵物的振動及吸收獵物撞擊蜘蛛網的動能,而螺旋狀黏絲則可以黏附並攔截上網的獵物。前人推論蜘蛛會因上網的獵物類型不同而改變其蜘蛛絲及蜘蛛網的物質特性。本研究探討結圓網蜘蛛的蜘蛛絲及蜘蛛網性質之改變是受到哪些因素所影響;而這些改變是否與促進對特定獵物之捕捉效率有關。在本研究中,使用人面蜘蛛(Nephila pilipes)作為研究材料,探討:(一)蜘蛛在面對不同類型獵物時,是否會調整蜘蛛網結構、蜘蛛絲之胺基酸組成及其物理性質;(二)絲及網性質是否是因為獵物之營養成分不同、振動訊號不同或處理經驗不同而有所差異。為了操控獵物的營養成分、振動訊號及處理經驗,我將人面蜘蛛分成六個處理組,利用蟋蟀及蒼蠅之營養成分、振動訊號及處理經驗交錯成六種不同餵食處理,分別餵以活蟋蟀、活蒼蠅、死蟋蟀但給予蒼蠅振動訊號、死蒼蠅但給予蟋蟀振動訊號、死蟋蟀但無振動訊號及死蒼蠅但無振動訊號。於十四天內進行餵食操控處理,比較處理間之蜘蛛網結構、蜘蛛絲的胺基酸組成及物理性質。結果顯示,餵食死蟋蟀且無振動訊號組顯著地比餵食死蒼蠅且無振動訊號組之網面積較大、網目較寬、絲總長較長、縱絲數較少、網張力較大及絲韌度較強。此結果顯示蜘蛛可能在接收到營養高的已死大型獵物情況下,因無強烈的振動訊號且不需制伏獵物,於是投資較多吐絲結網行為以增進捕食效益。而絲之氨基酸組成只有丙胺酸比例有顯著差異,錯置營養成分及振動訊號比較組跟餵食死獵物比較組,都是有接觸到蟋蟀並有處理經驗的組別含有較高比例的丙胺酸,這結果似乎可證實人面蜘蛛為了捕捉體型較大之獵物會改變其蜘蛛絲之蛋白質比例。其餘各處理組蜘蛛間之各樣網形值及絲特性則無顯著差異,顯示獵物之振動訊號與處理經驗/養分間具複雜關係,而交互影響蜘蛛之結網行為表現及蜘蛛絲製造。
Orb-web spiders used the silks they produced to construct webs to capture prey. The radial threads on web can transmit the vibration signals and absorb the kinetic energy generated by prey, while the spiral threads can adhere and intercept the prey. Scientists have suggested that orb web spiders could alter the properties of silks and webs in response to prey variation. In this study, I investigate which attributes of prey cause the changes in silk and web properties of orb-weaving spiders, and whether the changes are associated with enhanced efficiency of capturing specific prey type. I used giant wood spiders (Nephila pilipes) as model organism and studied 1) when spiders encountering different prey types would they adjust the web structures, amino acid compositions and mechanical properties of silk; 2) were the silk and web property changes induced by prey nutrients, vibration stimulus or handling? To manipulate the prey nutrients, vibration signal and handling, I divided Nephila pilipes into six treatment groups, and decoupled the nutrients, vibration signal and handling of crickets and flies. These treatments included feeding spiders live crickets, live flies, dead crickets with vibration signal of fly, dead flies with vibration signal of cricket, and dead crickets or flies without any vibration signal. The feeding treatments lasted two weeks and then I compared the web structures, amino acid compositions and physical properties of silk of N. pilipes in various treatments. The results showed that compared with spiders fed with dead flies, those fed with dead crickets without vibration stimulus built webs of significantly larger capture area with wider mesh, longer total length, less number of radii, stronger web tension and tougher silk. Such results indicate that when spiders consume dead prey with high nutrient but without vibration signal and the need to subdue, spiders will invest much in spinning silk and building webs to enhance the foraging efficiency. Silks produced by spiders fed with dead crickets or crickets with fly signal exhibited higher percentages of alanine than those produced by spiders in other treatment groups. Such results show that Nephila spiders could alter the ratio of silk proteins for capturing prey of large size. Since the web structures and silk properties of the other treatment groups did not differ significantly, such results indicate that prey vibration, handling and nutrient content might have complicated interacting effects and these effects may influence spiders web building and silk spinning behaviors.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/23810
其他識別: U0005-2607201112461400
Appears in Collections:生命科學系所

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