Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 新型非擴張式之高品質視覺機密分享技術研究
A Study of Novel High Quality Visual Secret Sharing Scheme with Non-expansion
作者: 蕭霓珊
Hsiao, Ni-Shan
關鍵字: Visual Cryptography
Visual Secret Sharing
Color Extended Visual Secret Sharing
出版社: 資訊管理學系所
引用: [1] W. Diffie and M.E. Hellman, “Privacy and authentication: an introduction to cryptography,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 67, No. 3, pp. 397-427, 1979. [2] N. F. Johnson and S. Jajodia, “Exploring steganography: seeing the unseen,” IEEE Computer, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 26-34, 1998. [3] G. R. Blakley, “Safeguarding cryptographic keys,” In Proc. AFIPS 1979 National Computer Conference, Vol. 48, pp. 313-317, 1979. [4] A. Shamir, “How to share a secret,” Communications of ACM, Vol. 22, No. 11, pp. 612-613, 1979. [5] A. Beimel and B. Chor, “Universally ideal secret-sharing schemes,” IEEE Transaction on Information Theory, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 786-794, 1994. [6] D. R. Stinson, “Decomposition constructions for secret-sharing schemes,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 40, No.1, pp. 118-125, 1994. [7] C. C. Thien and J. C. Lin, “Secret image sharing,” Computers & Graphics, Vol. 26, No. 5, pp. 765-770, 2002. [8] R. Z. Wang and C. H. Su, “Secret image sharing with smaller shadow images,” Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 551-555, 2006. [9] M. Noar and A. Shamir, “Visual cryptography,” Advance in Cryptology: Eurpocrypt'94, Lecture Notes In Computer Science, Springer Verlag, Germany, Vol. 950, pp. 1-12, 1995. [10] O. Kafri and E. Keren, “Encryption of pictures and shapes by random cipher-grids,” Optics Letters, Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 377-379, 1987. [11] S. J. Shyu, “Image encryption by random grids,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 1014-1031, 2007. [12] S. J. Shyu, “Image encryption by multiple random grids,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 42, No. 7, pp. 1582-1596, 2009 [13] T. H. Chen and K. H. Tsao, “ Visual secret sharing by random grids revisited,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 42, No. 9, pp. 2203-2217, 2009. [14] S. Cimato, R. De Prisco, and A. De Santis, “Probabilistic visual cryptography schemes,” Computer Journal, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 97-107, 2006. [15] D. Wang, L. Zhang, N. Ma, and X. Li, “Two secret sharing schemes based on Boolean operations,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 2776-2785, 2007. [16] C. N. Yang, “New visual secret sharing schemes using probabilistic methods,” Pattern Recognition Letters, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 481-494, 2004. [17] C. Y. Chang, “Visual cryptography for color images,” Master Thesis, Department of Information Management, National Central University, Taiwan, ROC, 2000. [18] Y. C. Hou and S. F. Tu, “A visual cryptographic technique for chromatic images using multi-pixel encoding method,” Journal of Research and Practice in Information Technology, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp.179-191, 2005. [19] S. F. Tu and Y. C. Hou, “Design of visual cryptographic methods with smooth-looking decoded images of invariant size for grey-level images,” The imaging Science Journal, Vol. 55, No. 2, pp. 90-101, 2007. [20] H. Zhang, X. Wang, W. Cao, and Y. Huang, “Visual cryptography for general access structure using pixel-block aware encoding,” Journal of Computers, Vol. 3, No. 12, pp. 68-75, 2008. [21] Y. F. Chen, Y. K. Chan, C. C. Huang, M. H. Tsai, and Y. P. Chu, “A multiple-level visual secret-sharing scheme without image size expansion,” Information Sciences, Vol. 177, No. 21, pp. 4696-4710, 2007. [22] Y. F. Chang, J. B. Feng, C.S. Tsai, Y. P. Chu, and H. C. Syu,“ New data hiding scheme using pixel swapping for halftone images,” The Imaging Science Journal, Vol. 56, No. 5, pp. 279-290, 2008. [23] C. C. Lin and W. H. Tsai, “Visual cryptography for gray-level images by dithering techniques,” Pattern Recognition. Letters, Vol. 24, No. 1-3, pp. 349-358, 2003. [24] M. Iwamoto and H. Yamamoto, “The optimal n-out-of-n visual secret sharing scheme for gray-scale images,” IEICE Transaction Fundamentals, Vol. E86-A, No. 10, pp. 2238-2247, 2003. [25] Y. C. Hou, “Visual cryptography for color images,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 36, No. 7, pp. 1619-1629, 2003. [26] S. J. Shyu, “Efficient visual secret sharing scheme for color images,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 866-880, 2006. [27] C. N. Yang and T. S. Chen, “Colored visual cryptography scheme based on additive color mixing,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 3114-3129, 2008. [28] G. Ateniese, C. Blundo, A. D. Santis, and D. R. Stinson, “Extended capabilities for visual cryptography,” Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 250, No.1-2, pp. 143-161, 2001. [29] F. Liu, C. K. Wu, and X. J. Lin, “Colour visual cryptography schemes,” Information Security, vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 151-156, 2008. [30] T. H. Chen, K. H. Tsao, and Y. T. Yang, “Friendly color visual secret sharing by random grids,” Fundamenta Informaticae, Vol. 96, No. 1-2, pp. 61-70, 2009. [31] W. P. Fang, “Friendly progressive visual secret sharing,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 41, No. 4, pp. 1410-1414, 2008. [32] A. Klein and M. Wessler, “Extended visual cryptography schemes,” Information and Computation Vol. 205, No. 5, pp. 716-732, 2007. [33] M. Nakajima and Y. Yamaguchi, “Extended visual cryptography for natural images,” Journal of WSCG, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 303-310, 2002. [34] D. Wang, F. Yi, and X. Li, “On general construction for extended visual cryptography schemes,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 3071-3082, 2009. [35] C. N. Yang and T. S. Chen, “Extended visual secret sharing schemes: improving the shadow image quality,” International Journal of Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 879-898, 2007. [36] C. C. Wu and L. H. Chen, “ A study on visual cryptography,” Master thesis, Institute of Computer and Information Science, National Chaio Tung University, Taiwan, ROC, 1998. [37] H. C. Wu and C. C. Chang, “Sharing visual multi-secrets using circle shares,” Computer Standards & Interfaces, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 123-135, 2005. [38] S. J. Shyu, S. Y. Huang, Y. K. Lee, R. Z. Wang, and K. Chen, “Sharing multiple secrets in visual cryptography,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 40, No. 12, pp. 3633-3651, 2007. [39] J. B. Feng, H. C. Wu, C. S. Tsai, Y. F. Chang, and Y. P. Chu, “Visual secret sharing for multiple secrets,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 41, No. 12, pp. 3572-3581, 2008. [40] T. L. Lin, S. J. Horng, K. H. Lee, P. L. Chiu, T. W. Kao, Y. H. Chen, R. S. Run, J. L. Lai, and R. J. Chen, “A novel visual secret sharing scheme for multiple secrets without pixel expansion,” Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 37, No. 12, pp. 7858-7869, 2010. [41] S. J. Lin, S. K. Chen, and J. C. Lin, “Flip visual cryptography (FVC) with perfect security, conditionally-optimal contrast, and no expansion,” Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation, Vol. 21, No. 8, pp. 900-916, 2010. [42] C. N. Yang, A. G. Peng, and T. S. Chen, “MTVSS: (M)isalignment (T)olerant (V)isual (S)ecret (S)haring on resolving alignment difficult,” Signal Processing, Vol. 89, No. 8, pp. 1602-1624, 2009. [43] F. Liu, C. K. Wu, and X. J. Lin, “The alignment problem of visual cryptography schemes,” Designs, Codes and Cryptography, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 215-227, 2009. [44] M. Naor and B. Pinkas, “Visual authentication and identification,” Proceedings of the 17th Annual International Cryptology Conference on Advances in Cryptology, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1294, Santa Barbara, California, USA, pp. 322-336, 1997. [45] G. Horng, T. Chen, and D. Tasi, “Cheating in visual cryptography,” Designs Codes Cryptography, Vol. 38, No.2, pp. 219-236, 2006. [46] D. S. Tsai, T. H. Chen, and G. Horng, “A cheating prevention scheme for binary visual cryptography with homogeneous secret images,” Pattern Recognition, Vol. 40, No. 8, pp. 2356-2366, 2007. [47] C. M. Hu and W. G. Tzeng, “Cheating prevention in visual cryptography,” IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 36-45, 2007. [48] W. P. Fang and J. C. Lin, “Visual cryptography with extra ability of hiding confidential data,” Journal of Electronic Imaging, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 023020, 2006. [49] W. P. Fang, “Non-expansion visual secret sharing in reversible style,” International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 204-208, 2009. [50] M. S. Wang and W. C. Chen, “Digital image copyright protection scheme based on visual cryptography and singular value decomposition,” Optical Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 6, pp. 067006, 2007. [51] T. H. Chen, C. C. Chang, C. S. Wu, and D. C. Lou, “On the security of a copyright protection scheme based on visual cryptography ,” Computer Standards & Interfaces, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 1-5, 2009 [52] R. W. Floyd and L. Steinberg, “An adaptive algorithm for spatial gray-scale,” in Proceedings of the Society for Information Display, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 75-77, 1976.
摘要: 視覺密碼學是一種密碼系統,主要概念是保護機密資訊,而不同於其他技術,視覺密碼學在解密過程中,不需複雜運算、任何密碼學知識,透過人類視覺即可得知其中的機密資訊,因此在沒有科技工具協助的環境中,仍可快速有效的進行解密。 在1995年,Naor和Shamir首先提出視覺密碼學,示範視覺機密分享技術的模型。在加密過程中,一張機密影像會編碼成兩張以上的分享影像,並分配給參與者。分享影像是由雜亂無章的黑白像素所組成,而任一張分享影像皆無法得知機密訊息。在解密過程中,當屬於一合格集合中的分享影像都相疊後,即能看見機密訊息,反之,則無法找回機密訊息。早期,在視覺密碼領域中,多數研究致力於改善像素擴張的問題,以及提高還原影像的對比度及品質。而後,由於雜亂無章的分享影像不自然,可能引起有心者的懷疑、破壞,因此,有學者進一步提出有意義分享影像的技術,即在編碼過程中加入掩護影像,來掩護帶有機密資訊的分享影像,提高分享過程的安全性。 本論文首先提出一個灰階無擴張的視覺密碼技術,主要概念是編碼時透過保留原始機密影像中的黑色像素,使得解密時,可復原較清晰、品質佳的機密影像,助於解密者辨識機密。接著,本論文以原本的編碼方式為基礎,延伸至彩色有意義的視覺機密分享技術上,無論機密影像為自然或文字影像,本方法在維持還原機密影像的品質條件下,保留了掩護影像的資訊,使得所製造之有意義分享影像亦是清楚鮮明,如此一來,提高了分享過程的安全性且分享影像也易於管理。
Visual cryptography (VC) is a kind of cryptosystems. The main function of visual cryptography is to protect secret information. Difference from other techniques, i visual cryptography needs neither complicated computation nor any knowledge of cryptography. Instead, it only needs human visual system to get secret information in the process of decryption. Therefore, visual cryptography can decrypt effectively even in a situation without any technological tools. In 1995, Naor and Shamir proposed visual cryptography and demonstrated the model of visual secret sharing (VSS) scheme for the first time. In the encryption process, one secret image is encoded into two or more share images, which made up of disorganized black and white pixels, and each share image does not reveal any secret information and distributed to the participants. In the decryption process, the secret information is revealed when all the share images that belong to one qualified set are stacked together; otherwise the secret information won't be recovered. In the early years, most researches are devoted to solve the problem of pixel expansion and enhance the contrast and quality of the recovered image in visual cryptography field. Later, some scholars found that the disorganized shared images may arouse people's suspicion and destruction. Thus, in order to improve the security of sharing process, scholars proposed the extended visual secret sharing scheme by adding the cover images to protect the shared images that possess some confidential information. This thesis first proposes a grayscale visual cryptography scheme without expansion. The main ideas are to preserve the original black secret pixel and to recover clearer and high quality secret image after decryption. Further, this thesis proposes a color extended visual secret sharing scheme based on the above-mentioned encoding model. This scheme reserves information of the cover images to construct the vivid and meaningful shares in the condition that keeping the quality of recovered image and is suitable for both natural and text secret image. In this way, the scheme enhances the security of sharing process and the share images can be managed easily and efficiently.
其他識別: U0005-1808201115403200
Appears in Collections:資訊管理學系



Show full item record
TAIR Related Article

Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.