Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/24485
標題: 不同日齡胚注射雌二醇對台灣土雞生長後期至成長後鬥爭行為, 性行為, 社會地位, 經濟性狀及胸肉物理特性之影響
Effects of different age of injecting estradiol into Taiwan Country Chicken on the agonistic behavior, sexual behavior, social status, economic traits and texture properties of breast meat in the later period of growing and the maturate
作者: 林佳慶
Lin, Chia-Ching
關鍵字: Taiwan Country Chicken
台灣土雞
Capon
Embryo
Estradiol
Behavior trait
Texture profile
閹雞

雌二醇
行為性狀
組織特性
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 本試驗選用中興大學育成之L2品系台灣土雞作為試驗雞隻。於雞胚發育過程中進行胚注射雌二醇處理;試驗一分為胚2日齡注射組、胚10日齡注射組、閹雞組及對照組,試驗二分為胚0日齡注射組、胚2日齡注射組、胚10日齡注射組及對照組。兩試驗均以同處理公母同欄合飼,於9-20週齡間進行生長、行為性狀的調查,並於24週齡時測定其胸肉的物理特性,試驗二並於雞隻23週齡時測量公雞血清中睪固酮與母雞雌二醇含量。以作為民間飼養管理業者的參考。試驗結果如下: 在12,16與20週齡進行啼叫行為、鬥爭行為、性行為和啄羽行為的觀察,每欄每週2小時,總計6小時。啼叫行為僅發生在對照組公雞。鬥爭行為次數在試驗一以閹雞組和對照組顯著地高於其他兩組。試驗二則以對照組顯著地高於其他組。性行為次數兩試驗均以對照組顯著地高於其他各組。啄羽行為次數試驗一以對照組最高、閹雞組次之、胚2日齡注射組及胚10日齡注射組居末。試驗二則以胚10日齡注射組最高、對照組次之、胚0日齡注射組最少。 為了了解各處理組雞隻主宰能力的差異,在第21週齡時將不同處理同性別雞隻混養,試驗一每欄20隻,試驗二每欄16隻,於混欄後第1,第2和第7天觀察雞隻的鬥爭行為,以比較各處理雞隻主宰能力,結果發現試驗一公雞以對照組的主宰能力最高,閹雞組最低。試驗二公雞以對照組的主宰能力最高,胚0日齡注射組最低。試驗一母雞亦以對照組的主宰能力最高,胚2日齡注射組最低。試驗二母雞則亦以對照組的主宰能力和社會地位最高。胚0日齡注射組最低。 試驗二雞隻在第23週齡時,測量公雞血清中睪固酮與母雞雌二醇含量,發現各處理組公雞的血清睪固酮含量並無顯著差異。各處理組母雞的血清雌二醇含量亦無顯著差異。 在9至20週齡之生長性狀方面,20週齡體重,試驗一公雞體重以胚2日齡注射組最重,胚10日齡注射組最輕,母雞體重亦以胚10日齡注射組最輕。在試驗二20週齡時公雞體重亦以胚10日齡注射組最輕,母雞體重在各組間無顯著差異。造成體重的差異最主要是由於在13至16週齡間,兩試驗不論公母,胚10日齡注射組的體增重均為最少,且在17至20週齡間,試驗一閹雞組和胚2日齡注射組公雞的體增重顯著高於對照組和胚10日齡注射組。試驗二公雞體增重則以胚0日齡注射組和胚2日齡注射組顯著高於對照組和胚10日齡注射組。在雞冠面積方面,9至20週齡期間,兩試驗對照組公雞的雞冠面積均顯著大於各處理組,而試驗一的閹公雞雞冠面積則顯著的小於各處理組。羽毛損壞程度,在20週齡時,兩試驗均以對照組母雞受損壞程度最高,胚2日齡注射組母雞的受損壞程度最低。 在胸肉組織特性測定方面,試驗一公雞在硬度、凝集力、彈力和咀嚼感在各處理組間無顯著差異。試驗二公雞的結果與試驗一不相同;胚0日齡注射組的硬度與咀嚼感顯著地低於各處理。然而,在母雞方面,試驗一對照組的硬度、凝集力、彈力和咀嚼感均顯著地高於其他各組;在試驗二,硬度在各處理組間無顯著差異,而凝集力、彈力及咀嚼感則均以胚2日齡注射組最低。而胸肉的兩樣本在組織物理特性的相關係數不高,多為低度正相關或負相關。
The Taiwan Country Chicken L2, which established at the National Chung-Hsing University, were used in this study. Those chicken embryos were injected with estradiol during embryonic period. There are four groups in Experiment 1(Ex1), they are the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estraiol at 2 days, the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estraiol at 10 days, the capon group, and the control group. Also, there are four groups in Experiment 2(Ex2), they are the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estraiol at 0 day, the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estraiol at 2 days, the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estraiol at 10 days, and the control group. The male and female chickens were mixed feeding during the both experiment period, also their growth and trait behaviors were investigated from the age of 9 weeks to the age of 20 weeks, moreover, the mechanical characteristics of the breast meats were tested at the age of 24 weeks old. In Ex2, male chickens and female chickens were examined how much testosterone and estradiol contained in the blood-serum in the 23rd week. Therefore, these information may be useful to the management of commercial breeders. Experiment results are as follows: At 12, 16, and 20 weeks, the crowing behaviors, agonistic behaviors, sexual behaviors, and feather pecking behaviors were observed. Observations for each pen in each week cost 2 hours; the total time is 6hours; the crowing behaviors were only discovered in the control groups. The frequency of agonistic behaviors which were discovered in capon group and in the control group in Ex1 are significantly higher than other two groups. In Ex2, the frequency of agonistic behaviors which were discovered in the control group are significantly higher than any other groups. The frequency of sexual behaviors which were discovered in the control groups in both Ex1 and in Ex2 are significantly higher than any other groups. In Ex1, the control group has the highest frequency of feather pecking behavior, then the capon group, and the groups which their chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 2 days and 10 days have the lowest frequency of feather pecking behavior. In Ex2, the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 10 days has the highest frequency of feather pecking behavior, then the control group, and the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 0 day has the lowest frequency of feather pecking behavior. In order to understand the differences of dominant ability among every chicken in every group, we mixed feeding certain male or female chickens from different treated groups. So, there are 20 chickens in every pen in Ex1 and 16 chickens in every pen in Ex2. Then, we observed the agonistic behaviors on the first , second, and seventh day so that we can compare the dominant ability among chickens from every group. Based on that process, in Ex1, we discovered that the male chickens in the control group have the highest dominant ability, while the male chickens in capon group have the lowest dominant ability. In Ex2, the male chickens in the control group have the highest dominant ability, while the male chickens in the group which its chickens were injected with estradiol at 0 day have the lowest dominant ability. In Ex1, the female chickens in the control group have the highest dominant ability, while the female chickens in the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 2 days have the lowest dominant ability. The same, in Ex2, the female chickens in the control group have the highest dominant ability and highest social status, while the female chickens in the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 0 days have the lowest dominant ability. In Ex2, male chickens and female chickens were examined how much testosterone and estradiol contained in the blood-serum in the 23rd week by use of the Competitive chemiluminesent immunoassay. It is discovered that there were no significant differences among the testosterone quantity which is contained in every blood-serum from those male chickens. Also, it is discovered that there were no significant differences among the extradiol quantity which is contained in every blood-serum from those female chickens. From the aspect of growth: from the age of 9 to 20 weeks, at 20 weeks in Ex1, the male chickens in the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estraiol at 2 days have the heaviest weights , while the male chickens in the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estraiol at 10 days have the lightest weights, and the female chickens in the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 10 days have the lightest weights. In Ex2 , also the male chickens in the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estraiol at 10 days have the lightest weights while there are no significant differences between every group among the female chickens. Without regarding the chicken's sex, the main reason that caused the differences in their weights is that the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 10 days have the least gaining weights in Ex1 or in Ex2. And, from the age of 17 to 20 weeks, in Ex1 the gaining weights of the capon group and the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 2 days are significantly higher than the gaining weights of the control group and the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 10 days. In Ex2 the gaining weights of the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 0 day and the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 2 days are significantly higher than the gaining weights of the control group and the group which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 10 days. From the comb's measure of area, during the period of the age of 9 to 20 weeks, the comb's measure of area of the male chickens of the control groups are significantly larger than any other treated groups in Ex1 or Ex2, while the comb's measure of area of the male chickens of the capon group in Ex1 are significantly smaller than any other treated groups. From the aspect of feather damage: at 16 weeks, both in Ex1 and Ex2, the female chickens in the control groups have the highest degree of hurting, while the female chickens which its chicken embryos were injected with estradiol at 2 days have the lowest degree of hurting. From the aspect of texture profile analysis of breast meats, in Ex1 ,among every group, there are no significant differences between the hardness, cohesion, springiness, and chewiness of every breast meats of male chickens. The results of Ex2 are not the same with Ex1. In Ex2, the breast meats of male chickens in the group which its chickens embryos were injected with extradiol at 0 day have the lowest sense of hardness and chewiness. However, In Ex1, the breast meats of female chickens in the control group have the highest sense of hardness, cohesion,springiness and chewiness. In Ex2, among every group, there are no significant differences between the hardness of every breast meats of female chickens. However, the breast meats of female chickens in the group which its chickens embryos were injected with extradiol at 2 days have the lowest sense of cohesion, springiness, and chewingness. The correlation coefficient of texture profile of the samples B1 and B2 of breast meats of the chickens among all groups are not hight.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/24485
Appears in Collections:動物科學系

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