Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/24739
標題: 不同處理雞蛋殼粉應用於戚風蛋糕 與山型白吐司之研究
Different treatments of eggshell powder and application in chiffon cake and bread
作者: 楊婷婷
Yang, Ting-Ting
關鍵字: eggshell powder
蛋殼粉
calcium salt
chiffon cake
bread
鈣鹽
戚風蛋糕
山型白吐司
出版社: 動物科學系所
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摘要: 本試驗目的是探討以蛋殼粉製得鈣源的有效處理條件,期能減少液蛋廠的大量廢棄物,並將製得鈣鹽予以應用在加工製品,探討貯存期間對其品質之影響,以期能加以應用作為食品中營養補充劑。將蛋殼粉分別以乾燥法與酸化法處理,乾燥法主要是乾燥粉碎後直接利用之,酸化法則是將蛋殼粉利用醋酸與乳酸兩種有機酸溶解製得鈣鹽,以不同的加熱溫度、酸溶液濃度等條件處理。將所製得鈣鹽添加於烘焙製品戚風蛋糕和山型白吐司中,探討貯存期間對其品質之影響。 結果顯示:蛋殼粉以醋酸或乳酸處理,隨著酸溶液濃度的增加,蛋殼粉的溶解量也隨之提高,各組間皆有顯著差異(P<0.05),在相同酸溶液濃度1.5N時,以乳酸對蛋殼粉的溶解量較佳,醋酸處理組較低。加熱溫度方面,相同濃度溶液隨加熱溫度之溶解量,各組間無顯著差異(P>0.05),隨著加熱溫度的增加,蛋殼粉的溶解量亦有增加之趨勢,當酸溶液濃度1.5N,加熱溫度100℃時,蛋殼粉有最佳的溶解量分別為醋酸處理組6.99± 1.64 g,乳酸處理組7.23± 1.34 g。不同加熱溫度,鈣鹽生成量亦有增加,蛋殼粉在50℃下以1.5N乳酸可得最高乳酸鈣生成量(23.85±5.46 g);醋酸鈣於溫度100℃醋酸濃度1.5N,具有最高生成量10.07±0.99 g。 烘焙製品試驗中,添加蛋殼鈣提升戚風蛋糕麵糊與產品pH值,醋酸鈣與乳酸鈣之添加則降低麵糊和產品之pH值。山型白吐司產品pH值測定亦有相同結果。各組間對烘焙產品水分皆無顯著差異,灰份隨著鈣鹽添加比例增加而有增高的情形。各組水活性數值範圍在0.9左右。添加不同鈣鹽可改善烘焙產品之色澤,增加產品內部L*值,以醋酸鈣與蛋殼鈣組別具有顯著差異,另蛋殼鈣添加2.0%之不同產品其L*值皆為最高。烘焙產品總生菌數方面:添加乳酸鈣、醋酸鈣等有機酸化鈣鹽具有抑菌效果,控制組與蛋殼粉組經儲存時間增加總生菌數增加,表面有發黴現象。 山型白吐司體積係數以添加蛋殼鈣2%組別顯著高於其他組別(P<0.05),對稱性良好,添加醋酸鈣2%對稱性指數呈現負值。戚風蛋糕質地剖面分析:在第1天硬度分析結果中,添加蛋殼鈣2%組別顯著低於其他各組(P<0.05),其彈性度最佳(1.06),咀嚼性最低,各組間凝聚度並無顯著差異(P>0.05)。儲藏期間各組別蛋糕硬度增加,添加醋酸鈣2%組別顯著高於其他各組(P<0.05)。除控制組與乳酸鈣添加2%組別外,其餘組別膠性度與咀嚼度隨儲藏時間延長而有增加的趨勢,各處理組彈性度無顯著差異(P>0.05),蛋殼粉組凝聚力維持度較高。山型白吐司質地剖面分析:第1天測定結果添加蛋殼鈣2%組別硬度、咀嚼性及膠性度顯著低於其他各組(P<0.05),添加不同種類鈣鹽組別與控制組間彈性度和凝聚度並無顯著差異(P>0.05)。儲藏期間吐司硬度變化,儲存至第5天,各組別硬度、咀嚼性及膠性度幾乎較第1天增加但差異不大添加乳酸鈣2%組別顯著高於各組(P<0.05);添加蛋殼粉隨儲藏時間延長,硬度均低於控制組,添加2%蛋殼粉組別咀嚼性與膠性度增加量較少,第5天數值顯著低於其他各組。各組彈性度無顯著差異(P>0.05),各組凝聚度均較第1天下降。喜好性品評結果:戚風蛋糕總接受度方面以控制組得分最高,醋酸鈣與蛋殼鈣建議添加1%,乳酸鈣添加比例可使用2%;山型白吐司:以添加鈣鹽組別得分較未添加鈣鹽控制組為高,整體接受度以蛋殼粉添加2.0%之組別得分最高,添加醋酸鈣2.0%之組別得分最低。
Eggshell, the major waste in liquid-egg plants, was used in this study to obtain calcium salt, which was further applied in processed food as a nutrient supplement. Eggshell was utilized after dried and ground or acidified by organic acid such as acetic acid and lactic acid at altered concentration and temperature. The calcium salt derived from eggshell powder and dried eggshell powder was then employed in chiffon cake and bread which would be further discussed the quality change during storage. The soluble yield and calcium salt production of eggshell powder improved as the acid concentration and heating temperature got higher. The highest soluble yield was 6.99±1.64 g in acetic acid treatment, and 7.23± 1.34 g in lactic acid treatment under 1.5N acid concentration, 100℃. The most calcium salt yield was 10.07±0.99 g in 1.5 N acetic acid in 100℃, and 23.85±5.46 g in 1.5 N lactic acid in 50℃. In bakery, chiffon cake batter, cake product and bread added eggshell powder resulted higher pH value, added calcium actete and calcium lactate resulted lower pH value. The moisture and ash content of bakery product had no significantly difference among treatments. When product added higher amount of calcium salt, the ash content would be higher. The water activity was about 0.9 among treatments. In coloration, product heart L*value increased as the added amount of calcium salts increased, calcium actete and eggshell powder treatment had significantly difference among treatments, and L* value of the bakery product added 2% eggshell powder both was the highest. With addition of calcium acetate and calcium lactate, the total plate count was lower, the organic acid salt has antibacterial effect. The total plate count was increased in control group and added eggshell powder group with time. The volume index of the bread was highest in added 2% eggshell powder group(P<0.05), and the symmetry index in this group was normal, but the symmetry index in added 2% calcium actete group was negative. In the texture profile analysis of chiffon cake, hardness value was the lowest in added 2% eggshell powder treatment in first day, the cohesiveiness value was no significantly difference among treatment(P>0.05), and added 2% eggshell powder group has the highest springiness value and lowest chewiness value. During the time it stored, the hardness value was increased, and the added 2% calcium actete treatment was significantly higher than other treatment. The gumminess and chewiness value was increased with time besides the control group and 2% calcium lactate group. The springiness value was no significantly different among treatment with time, and the cohesiveiness value was higher in added eggshell powder group. In the texture profile analysis of bread, hardness, chewiness and gumminess value was the lowest in added 2% eggshell powder treatment in first day(P<0.05). The cohesiveiness and springiness value was no significantly difference among treatment(P>0.05)During the time it stored, the hardness, , chewiness and gumminess value was increased higher than the value analysised in the first day, but it is no significantly different, however the added 2% calcium lactate treatment was significantly higher than other treatment. The added eggshell powder treatment has lower hardness value than control group with storied time. Therefore, when added 2% eggshell powder to the bread, its chewiness and gumminess value increased fewer, and became lowest in all treatment. The springiness value was no significantly different among treatment with time, and the cohesiveiness value was became lower than the first day. In panel score, chiffon cake was scored higher in total acceptance storage in the control group. It is proposed that the best addition to the chiffon cake is 1% calcium actete , eggshell poeder or 2% calcium lactate. The bread was scored higher in addition calcium salt than the control group. The bread added 2% eggshell powder was scored the highest, but added 2% calcium actete group was scored the lowest.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/24739
其他識別: U0005-0402200803300700
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0402200803300700
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