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標題: 不同蒸煮米或紅麴米之添加量對泰式發酵香腸 於4±2℃儲存期間品質之影響
The effects of various levels of cooked rice or anka rice on the quality of Thai fermented pork sausages during storage at 42ºC
作者: 林書蓉
Yosto, Onchuma
關鍵字: cooked rice
anka rice
Thai fermented pork sausage
出版社: 動物科學系所
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摘要: 泰式發酵香腸是一種傳統的發酵產品,其主要是由豬絞肉、細切豬皮、米、香辛料及亞硝酸鹽類混合,後以香蕉葉或是長條型塑膠袋包中進行3-5天之發酵。原料中所添加之米提供了大量的碳水化合物,在發酵過程中期被為生物大量利用進而生成有機酸及一獨特風味;然而亞消酸鹽類對菌類之抑制及乳酸菌於產品中之數量均會顯著影響發酵後之產品。另外,泰式發酵香腸於泰國傳統中均為一即食性產品,故於發酵期中選擇恰當之發酵酵母可有效維持食品之安全與品質。因此本次試驗將探討泰式發酵香腸中發酵菌種和來源碳基對於產品品質與食品安全之影響。另本次試驗中也將探討添加紅麴米於泰式發酵香腸後對於其色澤與品質之變化。 試驗一中以不同比例之烹煮米與發酵菌種製作泰式發酵香腸,其後以微生物與化學物理特性測定評估其產品之品質及安全性。結果顯示:泰式發酵香腸中烹煮米之濃度與儲存時間均不會顯著影響乳酸菌數與總生菌數,而隨著烹煮米比例之增加其pH值有下降之趨勢;另外隨儲存時間之增加其L與b值均隨之上升,並且添加5%烹煮米(11.33-12.35)之泰式發酵香腸組具有最大之a值;然而除添加7%烹煮米之泰式發酵香腸組外,其他處理組之a值於儲存期內並不穩定。於失重水份試驗中顯示,10%之泰式發酵香腸組具有顯著較低之失重水分,顯示其具有較好之保水特性;此外因為泰式發酵香腸之不均勻結構導致本試驗中質地測試之結果數據並不具有專一性,然而7%烹煮米之泰式發酵香腸組具有較低之質地結果;而於官能品評測定中,所有添加烹煮米之處理組均具有顯著較高之總接受度。 試驗二中以7%烹煮米添加不同比例之紅麴米製備泰式發酵香腸並評估其微生物與化學物理特性。結果顯示:紅麴米之不同比例與不同儲存時間並無顯著影響一般化學分析組成份、總生菌數與pH值;在黴菌與酵母菌數測定中,在儲存期第0至1天內,黴菌與酵母菌會隨時間增加而顯著上升並於儲存期第3天時達到最高峰,其菌數則隨著儲存期之增加而開始下降(第五天);近年來研究報告指出添加紅麴米於肉製品中可適量取代亞硝酸鹽類之添加,本試驗二中顯示隨著紅麴米之添加可顯著減少亞硝酸鹽之濃度;此外紅麴米添加之泰式發酵香腸處理組具有較低之L值與較高之a及b值;另於剪切值測定中顯示,不同濃度之紅麴米處理組間並無顯著差異且其剪切值亦不隨儲存時間之增加而產生顯著之變化;而於官能品評中,紅麴米之濃度增加導致色澤及外觀評分之下降。 泰式發酵香腸為一即食性產品,故於發酵終了時其最適pH值應為4.6。而本次試驗中添加7%烹煮米之泰式發酵香腸處理組於發酵結束時其pH值為4.6,具有一相當良好之食品安全性;另添加0.25%之紅麴米處理組具有最佳之色澤。綜觀上述,7%烹煮米與0.25%之紅麴米之泰式發酵香腸處理組實為一極具發展潛力的泰式發酵食品。
Thai fermented pork sausage (nham sausage) is a traditionally fermented food that made from ground pork, sliced pork skin, cooked rice mixed thoroughly with garlic, pepper, salt, bird chilli, nitrate-nitrite. And then, the sausage was packed in either banana leaves or cylindrical plastic bags for 3 to 5 days. The fermentable carbohydrates (cooked rice) are used for microorganisms to produce lactic acid and organic acids that contributed to unique flavors and textures, but it also depend on contamination with wild strains of lactic acid bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria. Since most nham sausage are consumed without further cooking, it is important to proper fermentation for ensuring the products safety. Therefore, starter cultures and carbon sources that used in nham formulation are two important factors to affect product quality and safety. The use of anka rice to improve the color properties of fermented sausages also would be studied in this research. In experiment I, starter culture and different levels of cooked rice were used to produce nham sausage, and then the microbiological, chemical and physical properties were determined to evaluate the quality and safety of the products. The results showed that cooked rice concentration and storage time didn't affect lactic acid bacteria and total plate counts (P>0.05), but found a lower pH in nham sausage (P< 0.05) with high percentage of cooked rice. It also found increasing in L and b color during storage time (P<0.05). Moreover, treatment with 5% (11.33-12.35) of cooked rice had the highest a value than other treatment (P<0.05). However, a value of all samples weren't stable during the whole storage time except 7% of cooked rice. In this experiment, it was found that 10% of cooked rice in nham sausage had significantly lower water released value than other treatments (P<0.05), but not significantly different within 1%, 3%, 5% and 7% of cooked rice. Texture in this study showed unable results in all treatment, due to the nham sausages didn't have uniform structure. However it could find that treatment 7% of cooked rice was lower in all textural values. The data of sensory test showed that all treatments could obtain high significantly overall accept score by the panelists, excepting of 1% of rice treatment (P<0.05). In Experiment II, starter culture and 7% of cooked rice and different levels of anka rice were used to produce nham sausage, and evaluated the microbiological, chemical and physical properties. Both of level of anka rice and storage time factors weren't significantly different in the chemical contents, total plate counts and pH value (P>0.05). Whereas, mold and yeast counts in each treatment were changed during storage period (P<0.05) and showed maximum increased in 3 days of storage. The higher level of anka rice resulted in the decrease in nitrite concentration and L value, but the increase in a and b values (P<0.05). The change of levels of anka rice and storage time had no marked effect on textural properties of nham product. However, addition anka rice had effects on appearance and color scores (P<0.05), showed lower scores with higher levels of anka rice. Overall conclusion, 7% of cooked rice is suitable for use in nham sausage production. Because in this treatment was obtained final pH value at 4.60 for fermentation which is a point for safety of lactic acid fermented foods, and be kept stable in redness color during 7 days of storage. However, 0.25% of anka rice obtained the highest in color scorces, which is suitable level for nham product.
其他識別: U0005-0502200912392800
Appears in Collections:動物科學系



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