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A Survey of Nutritional Status of Selenium in Lactating Holstein Herds in Taiwan
|引用:||林依亭。2002。荷蘭牛及乳山羊於分娩前肌肉注射維生素E及硒對其分娩後乳液中體細胞數之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學。台中。 宋永義。2006。新編乳牛學。第693頁。華香園出版社。台北。 台灣種原資訊網。2008。http://www.angrin.tlri.gov.tw/cow_all.htm。 Adams, R. S. 1974. Variability in mineral and trace element content of dairy cattle feeds. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1538-1548. Alaejos, M. S. and C. D. Romero. 1993. Urinary selenium concentrations. Clin. Chem. 39:2040-2052. Alloway, B. J. 1995. Soil processes and the behavior of metals. Pages 11-37. 2nd ed. B. J. Alloway, ed. Kluwer academic Publ., Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Ammerman, C. B. and S. M. Miller. 1984. Selenium in ruminant nutrition: a review. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1561-1577. Arthur, J. R., J. Price, and C. F. Mills. 1979. Observations on the selenium status of cattle in the north-east of Scotland. Vet. Rec. 104:340-341. Aziz, E. W., P. H. Klesius, and J. C. Frandsen. 1984. Effects of selenium on polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in goats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:1715-1718. Barceloux, D. G. 1999. Selenium. Clin. 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|摘要:||本調查針對台灣泌乳荷蘭牛群，調查其泌乳牛精料、完全混合日糧（total mixed ration, TMR）、芻料、糞便、尿液、血液及乳中硒之濃度及影響硒吸收之相關礦物質，並結合DHI之資料，以瞭解泌乳牛群硒之營養狀態。調查一收集3戶DHI酪農之基本資料及每戶各10頭泌乳牛之血液，檢測其全血及乳液之硒濃度、血漿之麩胱苷肽過氧化酶（glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px）活性及體細胞數與乳成分等性狀。調查結果指出，台灣泌乳荷蘭牛血漿GSH-Px之活性（U）與乳體細胞數（萬/mL）呈負相關之趨勢（r = -0.47，P < 0.1）。泌乳牛全血之硒濃度（μg/L wet wt）與血漿之 GSH-Px活性（U）之相關為0.62（P < 0.01），與乳液之硒濃度（μg/kg wet wt）之相關為0.68（P < 0.01）。因此，或可藉由非侵入性方法採集泌乳牛個別乳液之樣品，隨時瞭解其硒之營養狀態。調查二共採集分別使用10家飼料廠泌乳牛料之20戶酪農之樣品，每戶之樣品包含泌乳牛精料、芻料、TMR、糞便、尿液及總乳，此外，每戶逢機採取5頭泌乳牛之血液樣品。結果顯示，TMR之硒含量平均值（μg/kg DM）高於NRC之推薦量。泌乳牛精料之硒含量（μg/kg DM）及其總乳之硒濃度（μg/L）間有正相關之趨勢（r = 0.43, P < 0.1）。泌乳牛之TMR硒含量（μg/kg DM）與其尿液之硒濃度（μg/L）間有顯著正相關（r = 0.62, P < 0.01）。泌乳牛群之全血硒濃度（μg/L）與其尿液之硒濃度（μg/L）間有顯著之正相關（r = 0.69, P<0.001）。泌乳牛之全血硒濃度與其血漿中GSH-Px活性間有顯著之正相關，而泌乳牛之全血硒濃度又分別與其乳液及尿液之硒濃度間有顯著之正相關，因此可藉由採集個別乳液及尿液樣品之非侵入性方法，隨時監測泌乳牛之硒營養狀態。台灣泌乳荷蘭牛之TMR之硒含量較推估總日糧者對泌乳牛群之硒營養狀態之顯示更具有代表性，而90% 受調查之TMR之硒含量落於NRC之適當推薦範圍外。泌乳荷蘭牛之日糧之銅、鈣、鋅及鉬含量與其硒之營養狀態皆有正相關存在，且泌乳牛尿液之硒濃度較其全血、總乳或糞便者易受到日糧礦物質含量之影響。台灣泌乳荷蘭牛群其硒之營養狀態，非為影響體細胞數或乳成分之決定因子。故本調查認為大致而言台灣泌乳荷蘭牛群之日糧其硒之含量每有過與不及之情形，硒之營養狀態為適當，仍須注意於其飼糧如何適量添加硒。|
The purpose of this study was to survey the nutritional status of selenium (Se) in lactating Holstein herds in Taiwan. The first survey was to understand the relactionship among the nutritional status of Se, somatic cell count (SCC) and composition of milk in three herds, from which the DHI data and samples of blood and milk were collected. There were determined of the Se concentrations in blood and milk, the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), SCC and milk composition. It tended to be a negative correlation (r = -0.47, P < 0.1) between plasma GSH-Px activity (U) and SCC (105/mL). There was a correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) between blood Se concentration (μg/L) and plasma GSH-Px activity (U). Another correlation (r = 0.68, P < 0.01) was observed between blood and milk Se concentration (μg/L). Thus, Se concentrations in milk may serve as a non-invasive indicator for rapidly depicting the Se nutritional status in cows. Survey 2 sampled 20 herds which were using lactating concentrates from ten feed factories. The samples collected from the herds were lactating concentrates, forages, TMR, faeces, urine and bulk tank milk (BTM). Additionally, blood samples were collected from 5 lactating cows randomly in each of the farms. The results showed that the mean of Se content (μg/kg DM) in the TMR was greater than that recommended by NRC (2001). It was a tendency of positive correlation (r = 0.43, P < 0.1) between the Se contents of lactating concentrates (μg/kg DM) and BTM (μg/kg). A correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) was observed between Se content of TMR (μg/kg DM) and that of urine (μg/L). Se concentration (μg/L) in blood correlated (r = 0.69, P < 0.001) to that in urine. The Se concentration in milk or urine may be used for monitoring the nutritional status of Se in lactating Holsten cows. The Se content of TMR was more representative than that of estimate total ration in reflecting Se supply, and the Se content of TMR in most farms surveyed were out of the optimal range recommended by NRC. The contents of copper, calcium, zinc and molybdenum in TMR had the positive correlaction with the nutritional status of Se in the cows. Especially, the Se content in urine was affected by the mineral contents in TMR. The nutritional status of Se currently was not a decisive factor of affect SCC or milk composition in lactating Holstein cows in Taiwan. There were many cares that the dietary supply of Se for lactating Holstein cows in Taiwan was over or under the optimal range. Thus, how to correctly supplement Se in diets for lactating cows is still an important issue.
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