Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25028
標題: 台灣泌乳荷蘭牛群硒之營養狀態之調查
A Survey of Nutritional Status of Selenium in Lactating Holstein Herds in Taiwan
作者: 陳卉琪
Chen, Hay-Chi
關鍵字: Lactating cow
泌乳牛
Selenium
nutritional status

營養狀態
出版社: 動物科學系所
引用: 林依亭。2002。荷蘭牛及乳山羊於分娩前肌肉注射維生素E及硒對其分娩後乳液中體細胞數之影響。碩士論文。國立中興大學。台中。 宋永義。2006。新編乳牛學。第693頁。華香園出版社。台北。 台灣種原資訊網。2008。http://www.angrin.tlri.gov.tw/cow_all.htm。 Adams, R. S. 1974. Variability in mineral and trace element content of dairy cattle feeds. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1538-1548. Alaejos, M. S. and C. D. Romero. 1993. Urinary selenium concentrations. Clin. Chem. 39:2040-2052. Alloway, B. J. 1995. Soil processes and the behavior of metals. Pages 11-37. 2nd ed. B. J. Alloway, ed. Kluwer academic Publ., Dordrecht, The Netherlands. Ammerman, C. B. and S. M. Miller. 1984. Selenium in ruminant nutrition: a review. J. Dairy Sci. 58:1561-1577. Arthur, J. R., J. Price, and C. F. Mills. 1979. Observations on the selenium status of cattle in the north-east of Scotland. Vet. Rec. 104:340-341. Aziz, E. W., P. H. Klesius, and J. C. Frandsen. 1984. Effects of selenium on polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in goats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:1715-1718. Barceloux, D. G. 1999. Selenium. Clin. Toxicol. 37:145-172. Boila, R. J., S. C. Strothers, and L. D. Campbell. 1993. The concentration of selenium in the grain from wheat, barley and oats grown at selected locations throughout Manitoba. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 73:217-221. Bouchard, R. and H. R. Corad. 1973. Sulfur requirement of lactating dairy cows. I. sulfur balance and dietary supplementation. 56:1276-1283. Combs, G. F. 2001. Selenium in global food systems. British J. Nutr. 85: 517-547. Counotte, G. H. M. and J. Hartmans. 1989. Relation between selenium content and glutathione-peroxidase activity in blood of cattle. Vet. Quart. 11:155-160. Cristaldi, L. A., L. R. McDowell, C. D. Buergelt, P. A. Davis, N. S. Wilkinson, and F. G. Martin. 2005. Tolerance of inorganic selenium in wether sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 56:205-216. Echevarria, M. G., P. R. Henry, C. B. Ammerman, and P. V. Rao. 1988. Effects of time and dietary Se concentrations as sodium selenite on tissue Se uptake by sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 66:2299-2305. Ellis, R. G., T. H. Herdt, and H. D. Stowe. 1997. Physical, hematologic, biochemical, and immunologic effects of supranutritional supplementation with dietary selenium in Holstein cows. Am. J. Vet. Res. 58:760-764. Erskine, R. J., R. J. Eberhart, L. J. Hutchinson, and R. W. Scholz. 1987. Blood selenium concentrations and glutathione peroxidase activities in dairy herds with high and low somatic cell counts. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 190:1417-1421. Fisher, L. J., C. Hoogendoorn, and J. Montemurro. 1980. The effect of added dietary selenium on the selenium content of milk, urine and feces. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 60:79-86. Flohé, L, W. A. Gunzler, and H. H. Schock. 1973. Glutathione peroxidase: a selenoenzyme. FEBS. Lett. 32:132-134. Frankenberger, W. T. and S. M. Benson. 1994. Selenium in the Environment. (Eds.) New York: Marcel Dekker. Inc. Gailer, J. 2007. Arsenic–selenium and mercury–selenium bonds in biology. Coord. Chem. Rev. 251:234-254. Gant, R. G., W. Sanchez, and R. L. Kincaid. 1998. Effect of anionic salts on selenium metabolism in nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 81:1637-1642. Genin, G. and R. Wolter. 1981. Practical method of determining blood glutathione peroxidase in the cow. Revue. de Med. Vet. 132:183-188. Gerloff, B. J. 1992. Effect of selenium supplementation on dairy cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 77: 223-229. Gissel-Nielsen, G., U. C. Gupta, M. Lamand, and T. Westermarck. 1984. Selenium in soils and plants and its importance in livestock and human nutrition. Adv. Agron. 37:397-460. Givens, D. I., R. Allison, B. Cottrill, and J. S. Blake. 2004. Enhancing the selenium content of bovine milk through alteration of the form and concentration of selenium in the diet of the dairy cow. J. Sci. Food Agric. 84:811–817. Gyang, E. O., J. B. Stevens, W. G. Olson, S. D. Tsitsamis, and E. A, Usenik. 1984. Effeccts of selenium-vitamin e injection on bovine polymorphonucleated leukocytes phagocytosis and killing of staphylococcus aureus. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:175-177. Harapin, I., M. Bauer, L. Bedrica, and D. Potočnjak. 2000. Correlation between glutathione peroxidase activity and the quantity of selenium in the whole blood of beef calves. Acta. Vet. Brno. 69:87-92. Harrison J. H. and H. R. Conrad. 1984. Effect of dietary calcium on selenium absorption by the nonlactating dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci. 67:1860-1864. Harrison, J. H. and H. R. Conrad. 1984. Effect of selenium intake on selenium utilization by the nonlactating diary cow. J. Dairy Sci. 67:219-223. Hemingway, R. G. 1999. The influences of dietary selenium and vintamin E intakes on milk somatic cell counts and mastitis in cows. Vet. Res. 23:481-499. Hogan, J. S., K. L. Smith, W. I. Weiss, D. A. Todhunter, and W. L. Schockey. 1990. Relationships among vitamin E, selenium, and bovine blood neutrophils. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2372-2378. Hoshino, Y., S. Ichijo, S. Osame, and E. Takahashi. 1989. Studies on serum tocopherol, selenium levels and blood glutathione peroxidase activities in calves with white muscle disease. Jap. J. Vet. Sci. 51:741-748. House, W. A. and R. M. Welch. 1989. Bioavailability of and interactions between zinc and selenium in rats fed wheat grain intrinsically labeled with 65Zn and 65Se. J. Nutr. 119:916-921. Ivancic, J. and W. P. Weiss. 2001. Effect of dietary sulfur and selenium concentrations on selenium balance of lactating Holstein cows. 84:225-232. Jacobson, D. R., J. W. Barnett, S. B. Carr, and R. H. Hatton. 1967. Voluntary feed intake, milk production, rumen content, and plasma-free amino acid levels of lactating cows on low sulfur an dsulfur-supplemented diets. J. Dairy Sci. 50:1248-1254. Judson, G. J. and J. D. McFarlane. 1998. Mineral disorders in grazing livestock and the usefulness of soil and plant analysis in the assessment of these disorders. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 38:707-723. Jukola, E., J. Hakkarainen, H. Saloniemi, and S. Sankari. 1996. Effect of selenium fertilization on selenium in feedstuffs and selenium, vitamin E, and b-carotene concentrations in blood of cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 79:831–837. Juniper, D. T., R. H. Phipps, A. K. Jones, and G. Bertinut. 2006. Selenium supplementation of lactating dairy cows: effect on selenium concentration in blood, milk, urine, and feces. J. Dairy Sci. 89:3544-3511. Kappel, L. C., R. H. Ingraham, E. B. Morgan, J. M. Dixon, L. Zeringue, D. Wilson, and D. K. Babcock. 1984. Selenium concentrations in feeds and effects of treating pregnant cows with selenium and vitamin E on blood selenium values and reproductive performance. Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:691-694. Khan, A. A., D. Lovejoy, A. K. Sharma, R. M. Sharma, M. G. Prior, and L. E. Lillie. 1987. Effects of high Dietary Sulphur on enzyme activities, selenium concentrations and body weights of cattle. Can. J. Vet. Res. 51:174-180. Knowles, S. O., N. D. Grace, K. Wurms, and J. Lee. 1999. Significance of amount and form of dietary selenium on blood, milk, and casein selenium concentrations in grazing cows. J. Dairy Sci. 82:429-437. Koller, L. D., P. J. South, J. H. Exon, G. A. Whitbeck, and J. Maas. 1984. Comparison of selenium levels and glutathione peroxidase activity in bovine whole blood. Can. J. Comp. Med. 48:431-433. Kommisrud, E., O. Østerås, and T. Vatn. 2005. Blood selenium associated with health and fertility in Norwegian dairy Herds. Acta. Vet. Scand. 46:229-240. Laflamme, D. P., W. J. Miller, M. W. Neathery, R. P. Gentry, D. M. Blackmon, K. R. Logner, and A. S. Fielding. 1985. The effect of low to normal dietary phosphorus levels on zinc metabolism and tissue distribution in calves. J. Anim. Sci. 61:525-531. Lawle, T. L., J. B. Taylor, J. W. Finley, and J. S. Canton. 2004. Effect of supranutritional and organically bound selenium on performance, carcass characteristics, and selenium distribution in finishing beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 82:1488-1493. Lawler, T. L., J. B. Taylor, E. E. Grings, J. W. Finley, and J. S. Caton. 2002. Selenium concentration and distribution in range forages from four locations in the northern great plains. Proc. West. Sect. Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci. 53:7-9. Lawler, T. L., J. B. Taylor, J. W. Finley, and J. S. Caton. 2004. Effect of supranutritional and organically bond selenium on performance, carcass characteristics, and selenium distribution in finishing beef steers. Anim. Sci. 82:1488-1493. Lawrence, R. A. and R. F. Burk. 1976. Glutathione peroxidase activity in selenium deficient rat liver. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 71:952-958. Littledike, E. T., T. E. Wittum, and T. G. Jenkins. 1995. Effect of breed, intake, and carcass composition on the status of several macro and trace minerals of adult beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73:2113-2119. Long, M. I. E. and B. Marshall. 1973. The selenium status of pastures in Uganda. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad) 50:123-128. Lowry, K. R. and D. H. Baker. 1989. Amelioration of selenium toxicity by arsenicals and cysteine. J. Anim. Sci. 67:959–965. Maas, J., J. R. Peauroi, T. Tonjes, J. Karlonas, F. D. Galey, and B. Han. 1993. Intramuscular selenium administration in selenium-deficient cattle. J. Vet. Int. Med. 7:342-348. Mahan, D. C., T. R. Cline, and B. Richer. 1999. Effects of dietary levels of selenium-enriched yeast and sodium selenite as selenium sources fed to growing-finishing pigs on performance, tissue selenium, serum glutathione peroxidase activity, carcass characteristics, and loin quality. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2172-2179. Mass, J. and L. D. Koller. 1985. Selenium responsive disease in food animals. Page 20. Veterinary learning systems Co., Princeton junction. Mathias, M. M., D. E. Hogue, and J. K. Loosli. 1967. The biological value of selenium in bovine milk for the rat and chick. J. Nutr. 96:14-20. Maus, R. W., F. A. Martz, R. L. Belyea, and M. F. Weiss. 1980. Relationship of dietary selenium to selenium in plasma and milk from dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 63:532-537. McDowell, L. R. 2003. Minerals in animal and human nutrition, 2nd ed. Elsevier Science. Amsterdam. Miller, E. R. 1980. Bioavailability of minerals. Proc. p 144. Mnnesota Nutr. Cod. Miller, W. J.1981. Mineral and vitamin nutrition of dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 64:1196-1206. Miltimore, J. E., A. L. van Ryswyk, W. L. Pringle, F. M. Chapaman, and C. M. Kalnin. 1975. Selenium concentrations in British Columbia forages, grains, and processed feeds. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 55:101-111. Minson, D. J. 1990. Forage in ruminant nutrition. Page 483. Academic Press, London, Alloway, B. J. and J. R.Tills. 1984. Copper deficiency in world crops. Outlook on agriculture. 13:32-42. Muňiz, O, R. Domínguez, A. Bermejo, J. A. Cocho, J. M. Fraga, A. Goris, A. López, I. Martínez, J. Valledor, L. Fernández, and P. Bermeho. 2005. Selenium content and distribution in cow’s milk supplemented with two dietary selenium sources. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53:9817-9822. Ndiweni, N. and J. M. Finch. 1991. The relationship between the vitamin E/selenium status and the incidence of mastitis in dairy herds near Harare. Zimbabwe Vet. J. 22:101–109. Nicholson, F. A., S. R. Smith, B. J. Alloway, C. Carlton-Smith, and B. J. Chambers. 2003. An inventory of heavy metals inputs to agricultural soils in Enbland and Wales. Sci. Total Environ. 311:205-219. Niekerk, F. E., S. W. P. Cloete, S. A. Barnard, and E. W. P. Heine. 1990. Plasma copper, zinc and blood selenium concentrations of sheep, goats and cattle. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 20:144-147. NRC (National Research Council). 1983. Selenium in Nutrition, rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 2000. Nurtient requirements of beef cattle. 7th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC. : National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle. 6th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC. : National Academy Press. NRC (National Research Council). 2005. Mineral Tolerance of Domestic Animals. 6th rev. ed. Natl. Acad. Sci., Washington, DC. : National Academy Press. O’toole, D. and M. F. Raisbeck. 1995. Pathology of experimentally induce chronic selenosis (alkali disease) in yearling cattle. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 7:364-373. Ortman, K. and B. Pehrson. 1999. Effect of selenate as a feed supplement to dairy cows in comparison to selenite and selenium yeast. J. Anim. Sci. 77:3365-3370. Ortman, K., R. Andersson, and H. Holst. 1999. The influence of supplements of selenite, selenate, and selenium yeast on the selenium status of dairy heifers. Acta. Vet. Sacand. 40:23-34. Parkash, S. and R. Jenness. 1967. Status of zinc in cow’s milk. J. Dairy Sci. 50:127-134. Patrick, L. 2004. Selenium biochemistry and cancer: a review of the literature. Altern. Med. Rev. 9:239-258. Pope, A. L., R. J. More, M. Somers, E. J. Underwood, and C. L. White. 1979. The effect of sulphur on 75Se absorption and retention in sheep. J. Nutr. 109:1448-1455. Puoli, J. R., G. A. Jung, and r. L. Reid. 1991. Effects of nitrogen and sulfur on digestion and nutritive quality of warm-season grass hays for cattle and sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 60-843-852. Reinhold, J. G. 1975. Trace elements - a selective survey. Clin. Chem. 21:476-500. Robberecht, J. H. and H. A. Deelstra. 1984. Selenium in human urine: -concentration levels and medical implications. Clin. Chim. Acta. 136:107-127. Rotruck, J. T., A. L. Pope, H. E. Ganther, A. B. Swanson, D. G. Hafeman, and W. G. Hoekstra. 1973. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179: 588–590. Scholz, R. W. and J. L. Hutchinson. 1979. Distribution of glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium in the blood of dairy cows. Am. J. Vet. Res. 40:245-249. Schwarz, K. and C. M. Foltz. 1957. Selenium as an integral part of factor-3 against dietary necrotic liver degeneration. J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 79:3292-3293. Schwarz, K. and C. M. Foltz. 1958. Factor 3 activity of selenium compounds. J. Biolo. Chem. 233:245-251. Scott, D. 1988. Control of phosphorus balance in ruminants. Pages 156-174. Aspects of Digestive Physiology inRuminants. Dobson, A. and M. J. Dobson, ed. Comstock Publ. Assoc., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Spears, J. W. 2003. Trace mineral bioavailability in ruminants. J. Nutr. 133:1506-1509. Stowe, H. D. and T. H. Herdt. 1992. Clinical assessment of selenium status of livestock. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3928-3933. Sutherland, B., O. A. Levander, and J. C. King. 1980. Biochemical and physiological changes with selenium depletion and repletion in young men: possible parameters for selenium status assessment. Fed. Proc. 39:435. Suttle, N. F. 1991. The interactions between copper, molybdenum, and sulfur in ruminant nutrition. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 11:121-140. Thompson, C. D., M. F. Robinson, D. R. Campbell, and H. M. Rea. 1982. Effect of prolonged supplementation with daily supplements of selenomethionine and sodium selenite on glutathione peroxidase activity in blood of New Zealand residents. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 36:24-31. Thompson, K. G., A. J. Fraser. B. M. Harrop, J. A. Kirk, J. Bullians, D. O. Cordes. 1981. Glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium concentration in bovine blood and liver as indicators of dietary selenium intake. N. Z. Vet. J. 29:3-6. Thompson. R. H. 1976. The levels of selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood of sheep, cows and pigs. Res. Vet. Sci. 20:229-231. Underwood, E. J. and N. F. Suttle. 1999. Copper, 3rd/ed. CABI Publishin, Wallingord, UK. van Ryssen, J. B. J. 2001. Geographical distribution of the selenium status of herbivores in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 31:1-8. van Ryssen, J. B. J., P. S. M. van Malsen, and R. Hartmann. 1998. Concentration of dietary sulphur to the interaction between selenium and copper in sheep. J. Agricu. Sci. 130:107-114. van Ryssen, J. B. J., R. J. Coertze, and J. F. de Villiers. 1999. Supplementation of selenium to sheep grazing kikuyu or ryegrass: II. Effect on selenium concentration in grass and body tissues. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 29:145-153. van Saun, R. J. 1990. Rational approach to selenium supplementation essential. Feedstuffs. 15:15-17. Vendeland, S. C., J. A. Butler, and P. D. Whanger. 1992. Intestinal absorption of selenite, selenate, and selenomethionine in the rat. J. Nutr. Biochem. 3:359-365. Visek, W. J., B. A. Monroe, E. W. Swanson, and C. L. Comar. 1953. Determination of endogenous fecal calcium in cattle by a simple isotope dilution method. J. Nutr. 50:23-34. Ward, J. D., J. W. Spears, and G. P. Gengelbach. 1995. Differences in copper status and copper metabolism among Angous, Simmental, and Charolais cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73:571-577. Weiss, W. P., J. S. Hogan, K. S. Smith, and K. H. Hoblet. 1990. Relationshiops among selenium, vitamin E, and mammary gland health in commercial dairy herds. J. Dairy Sci. 73:381-390. Whanger, P. D., P. H. Weswig, and J. E. Oldfield. 1978. Selenium, sulfur and nitrogen levels in ovine rumen microorganisms. J. Anim. Sci. 46:515-519. Whelan, B. T., N. J. Barrow, and D. W. Peter. 1994. Selenium fertilzers for pastures grazed by sheep. I. Selenium concentrations in whole blood and plasma. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 45:863-875. White, C. L., T. K. Cadwalader, G. W. Hoekstra, and A. L. Pope. 1989. The metabolism of 75Se-selenomehtionine in sheep given supplementary copper and molybdenum. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2400-2408. White, D. L., T. K. Caldwalader, W. G. Hoekstra, and A. L. Pope. 1989. Effects of copper and molybdenum supplements on the copper and selenium status of pregnant ewes and lambs. J. Amin. Sci. 67:803-809. Wichtel, J. J., G. P. Keefe, J. A. van Leeuwen, E. Spangler, M. A. McNiven, T. H. Ogilvie. 2004. The selenium status of dairy herds in Prince Edward Island. Can. Vet. J. 45:124-132. Windisch, W. and M. Kirchgessner. 2000. P. 883. in Trace Elements in Man and Animals-10, Fisher, P. W., M. R. Labbe, K. A. Cockell, and R. S. Gibson, eds. New York: kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. Witchte, J. J., G. P. Keefe, J. A. van Leeuwe, E. Spangler, M. A. McNive, and T. H. Ogilvie. 2004. The selenium status of dairy herds in prince Edward island. Can. Vet. J. 45:124-132. Wolffram, S., E. Anliker, and E. Scharrer. 1986. Uptake of selenate and selenite by isolated brush border membrane vesicles from pig, sheep, and rat intestine. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 10:293-306. Wu, Z., L. D. Satter, and R. Sojo. 2000. Milk production, reproductive performance, and fecal excetion of phosphorus by dairy cows fed three amounts of phosphorus. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1028-1033. Yaeger, M. J., R. D. Neiger, L. Holler, T. L. Fraser, D. J. Hurley, and I. S. Palmer. 1998. The effect of subclinical selenium toxicosis on pregnant beef cattle. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 10:269-273. Zeng, H. and G. F. Combs. 2008. Selenium as an anticancer nutrient: roles in cell proliferation and tumor cell invasion. J. Nutr. Biochem. 19:1-7.
摘要: 本調查針對台灣泌乳荷蘭牛群,調查其泌乳牛精料、完全混合日糧(total mixed ration, TMR)、芻料、糞便、尿液、血液及乳中硒之濃度及影響硒吸收之相關礦物質,並結合DHI之資料,以瞭解泌乳牛群硒之營養狀態。調查一收集3戶DHI酪農之基本資料及每戶各10頭泌乳牛之血液,檢測其全血及乳液之硒濃度、血漿之麩胱苷肽過氧化酶(glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px)活性及體細胞數與乳成分等性狀。調查結果指出,台灣泌乳荷蘭牛血漿GSH-Px之活性(U)與乳體細胞數(萬/mL)呈負相關之趨勢(r = -0.47,P < 0.1)。泌乳牛全血之硒濃度(μg/L wet wt)與血漿之 GSH-Px活性(U)之相關為0.62(P < 0.01),與乳液之硒濃度(μg/kg wet wt)之相關為0.68(P < 0.01)。因此,或可藉由非侵入性方法採集泌乳牛個別乳液之樣品,隨時瞭解其硒之營養狀態。調查二共採集分別使用10家飼料廠泌乳牛料之20戶酪農之樣品,每戶之樣品包含泌乳牛精料、芻料、TMR、糞便、尿液及總乳,此外,每戶逢機採取5頭泌乳牛之血液樣品。結果顯示,TMR之硒含量平均值(μg/kg DM)高於NRC之推薦量。泌乳牛精料之硒含量(μg/kg DM)及其總乳之硒濃度(μg/L)間有正相關之趨勢(r = 0.43, P < 0.1)。泌乳牛之TMR硒含量(μg/kg DM)與其尿液之硒濃度(μg/L)間有顯著正相關(r = 0.62, P < 0.01)。泌乳牛群之全血硒濃度(μg/L)與其尿液之硒濃度(μg/L)間有顯著之正相關(r = 0.69, P<0.001)。泌乳牛之全血硒濃度與其血漿中GSH-Px活性間有顯著之正相關,而泌乳牛之全血硒濃度又分別與其乳液及尿液之硒濃度間有顯著之正相關,因此可藉由採集個別乳液及尿液樣品之非侵入性方法,隨時監測泌乳牛之硒營養狀態。台灣泌乳荷蘭牛之TMR之硒含量較推估總日糧者對泌乳牛群之硒營養狀態之顯示更具有代表性,而90% 受調查之TMR之硒含量落於NRC之適當推薦範圍外。泌乳荷蘭牛之日糧之銅、鈣、鋅及鉬含量與其硒之營養狀態皆有正相關存在,且泌乳牛尿液之硒濃度較其全血、總乳或糞便者易受到日糧礦物質含量之影響。台灣泌乳荷蘭牛群其硒之營養狀態,非為影響體細胞數或乳成分之決定因子。故本調查認為大致而言台灣泌乳荷蘭牛群之日糧其硒之含量每有過與不及之情形,硒之營養狀態為適當,仍須注意於其飼糧如何適量添加硒。
The purpose of this study was to survey the nutritional status of selenium (Se) in lactating Holstein herds in Taiwan. The first survey was to understand the relactionship among the nutritional status of Se, somatic cell count (SCC) and composition of milk in three herds, from which the DHI data and samples of blood and milk were collected. There were determined of the Se concentrations in blood and milk, the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), SCC and milk composition. It tended to be a negative correlation (r = -0.47, P < 0.1) between plasma GSH-Px activity (U) and SCC (105/mL). There was a correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) between blood Se concentration (μg/L) and plasma GSH-Px activity (U). Another correlation (r = 0.68, P < 0.01) was observed between blood and milk Se concentration (μg/L). Thus, Se concentrations in milk may serve as a non-invasive indicator for rapidly depicting the Se nutritional status in cows. Survey 2 sampled 20 herds which were using lactating concentrates from ten feed factories. The samples collected from the herds were lactating concentrates, forages, TMR, faeces, urine and bulk tank milk (BTM). Additionally, blood samples were collected from 5 lactating cows randomly in each of the farms. The results showed that the mean of Se content (μg/kg DM) in the TMR was greater than that recommended by NRC (2001). It was a tendency of positive correlation (r = 0.43, P < 0.1) between the Se contents of lactating concentrates (μg/kg DM) and BTM (μg/kg). A correlation (r = 0.62, P < 0.01) was observed between Se content of TMR (μg/kg DM) and that of urine (μg/L). Se concentration (μg/L) in blood correlated (r = 0.69, P < 0.001) to that in urine. The Se concentration in milk or urine may be used for monitoring the nutritional status of Se in lactating Holsten cows. The Se content of TMR was more representative than that of estimate total ration in reflecting Se supply, and the Se content of TMR in most farms surveyed were out of the optimal range recommended by NRC. The contents of copper, calcium, zinc and molybdenum in TMR had the positive correlaction with the nutritional status of Se in the cows. Especially, the Se content in urine was affected by the mineral contents in TMR. The nutritional status of Se currently was not a decisive factor of affect SCC or milk composition in lactating Holstein cows in Taiwan. There were many cares that the dietary supply of Se for lactating Holstein cows in Taiwan was over or under the optimal range. Thus, how to correctly supplement Se in diets for lactating cows is still an important issue.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25028
其他識別: U0005-2208200808103600
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-2208200808103600
Appears in Collections:動物科學系

文件中的檔案:

取得全文請前往華藝線上圖書館



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.