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Effect of dietary glutamine supplementation on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and immunity of weaning pigs
許晉賓, Chin-Bin Hsu
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Anim. Sci. 51:444-448.|
|摘要:||仔豬剛離乳後，常因能量攝取不足而引起小腸絨毛受損，進而影響生長性能。麩醯胺（glutamine, Gln）可提供能量給迅速分裂之細胞，如小腸上皮細胞及活化的淋巴細胞，可維護小腸的完整，故又被認為是一種條件性的必需胺基酸。在某些生理緊迫情況下，如離乳、去勢及感染時，動物對Gln之需求將會增加，但此時內源性合成的Gln往往無法符合正常需求。本研究設計一系列之離乳仔豬動物試驗（第二~五章），探討飼料中添加L-Gln對於改善離乳仔豬腸道發育、生長性能與免疫能力之效應，以供作為改善離乳仔豬育成率之飼養策略。以不同劑量（0、1%與2%）Gln添加於離乳仔豬飼糧中，顯示飼糧添加Gln具有改善仔豬十二指腸與空腸絨毛高度之趨勢；而添加Gln 1%或2%均有益於仔豬的小腸絨毛形態、對xylose的吸收能力以及生長性能。為紓緩公仔豬的去勢緊迫，於飼糧添加2% Gln探討對離乳閹公仔豬之生長性能、抗緊迫與免疫反應之影響。所有公仔豬於28日齡離乳，並於35日齡進行去勢。飼糧Gln之添加具有提高仔豬日增重之趨勢（第7-14及0-25天期間），並顯著改善飼料效率(G/F)；Gln添加組可顯著降低去勢1週後的緊迫（降低血漿ACTH與cortisol濃度），也可提高豬隻免疫力如血漿IgG濃度，在LPS抗原刺激下，雖能減輕炎症反應之發燒現象，但並無法顯著調控細胞激素(cytokine)之反應。離乳瘦弱仔豬生長緩慢，體型遠比同胎仔豬瘦小，飼養期也明顯拉長，因此本論文亦探討熟化玉米粉-大豆粕為基礎之保育飼糧添加Gln或glutamate (Glu)，對於離乳瘦弱仔豬生長性能之影響。飼糧添加1% Gln，雖無法於短期間(17天)改善對離乳瘦弱仔豬之生長性能，但有助於改善隨後(18-31天)之生長，並呈現代償性生長反應。然而，以glu之添加對仔豬代償性生長反應則較不明顯。最後，探討以較低劑量之Gln與有機酸（0.8%乳酸）或益生菌（0.3%，含乳酸桿菌與枯草桿菌）共同使用，對離乳仔豬生長性能與免疫反應之影響。在試驗第1週期間，添加0.6% Gln（Gln組）或Gln與乳酸共同添加（Gln+Lac組）均可顯著改善飼料效率；且Gln+Lac組可顯著提高仔豬日增重。在離乳1週時，Gln+Lac組之血漿IL-1β濃度顯著高於對照組與Gln組。但在離乳3週時，LPS之抗原刺激並不影響各處理組之血漿細胞激素反應。顯示0.6% Gln及0.8%乳酸共同添加，有助於改善仔豬離乳早期之生長性能及免疫能力。綜合以上各試驗結果，Gln之添加有益於減輕離乳仔豬小腸絨毛之萎縮、改善生長性能，並能降低仔公豬的去勢緊迫及提高免疫能力。然而，在LPS之抗原攻擊下，Gln之添加並無法顯著調控仔豬的血漿細胞激素反應。|
Inadequate nutrient intake after weaning often causes damage to the intestinal villi and contributes to poor growth of weaning pigs. Glutamine (Gln) can provide energy to rapid dividing cells, such as intestinal epithelial cells and activated lymphocytes, and it is regarded as a conditionally essential amino acid. The requirement of Gln increased especially under certain physiological stresses such as weaning, castration, and infection, which can not be fulfilled by endogenous Gln synthesis. A series of experiments (Chapter 2~5) were conducted to evaluate the effects of Gln supplementation on the intestinal morphology, growth performance and immunity of weaning pigs. Different levels of dietary L-Gln (0, 1, and 2%) were supplemented to diets of weaning pigs. The results showed that Gln supplementation tended to improve the villous height in duodenum and jejunum. 1 or 2% Gln supplementation could be beneficial for small intestinal villous morphology, xylose absorptive capacity, and growth performance. Further, dietary 2% L-Gln was supplemented to weaning barrows and their performance was investigated. Results indicated Gln supplementation tended to increase barrow's ADG and improved FE (G/F). That also decreased the castration stress (decreased plasma conc. of ACTH and cortisol) and increased the immunity such as plasma IgG on d 7 post-castration, but could not modulate the plasma cytokine profile after LPS challenge. Lighter-weight weaning pigs generally take longer to reach market weight. We evaluated the effect of dietary supplementing Gln or glutamate (Glu) on the growth performance of lighter piglets postweaning. The results showed that Gln or Glu supplementation could not improve the growth performance during 0-17 days, but Gln supplementation was beneficial for the subsequent ADG during 18-31 days. Finally, lower level of Gln (0.6%) was used or composed with organic acid (0.3% lactate) or probiotics (0.3%) to evaluate the efficacy of dietary supplementation. The results showed the Gain/Feed ratio of Gln and Gln+Lac groups were improved during d 0-7, and the ADG of Gln+Lac group was also increased. The plasma IL-1β conc. of Gln+Lac group was higher than Control group and Gln group on d 7. It indicated that 0.6% Gln composed with 0.3% lactic acid will improve the growth performance and immunity of weaning pigs. In conclusion, Gln supplementation is beneficial for weaning pigs to attenuate the intestinal villous atrophy and improve growth performance. Gln also decrease the castration stress and increase the immunity of weaning barrows, however, Gln supplementation can not powerfully modulate piglet's plasma cytokine profiles after LPS challenge.
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