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Study of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in diet on broiler growth
Fermented soybean meal
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|摘要:||大豆粕與魚粉兩者皆為動物飼料中蛋白質來源之一，以魚粉作為飼料中蛋白質來源時，其成本遠高於大豆粕，因此如果能以大豆粕取代魚粉作為飼料中蛋白質來源將降低飼料之成本，但大豆粕含有多種抗營養因子若直接運用於動物之飼料中將降低其營養價值及利用率。針對大豆粕所含抗營養因子，本試驗以米麴菌(Aspergillus oryzae) 和乳酸菌(Lactobacillus casei)進行二階段發酵大豆粕可降低大豆粕抗營養因子及提高其營養價值。為考量乾燥成本及加熱負作用等缺點，擬進一步探討最適添加水量之發酵條件。利用發酵大豆粕餵飼白肉雞，由雞隻生長性能及腸道生理機能之影響來探討飼料中發酵大豆粕是否能取代魚粉。試驗以450隻白肉雞，公母各半並分成18欄(3處理×6重複×25隻)。處理組為發酵大豆粕取代魚粉用量之50%、100%及對照組。結果顯示，全期餵飼50%發酵大豆粕組之雞隻體重和飼料效率與對照組並無顯著差異，但100%發酵大豆粕組則較對照組差(P<0.05)。發酵大豆粕之處理組於21及42日齡其迴腸之絨毛高度或絨毛/腺窩比率均較對照組為低，而50%發酵大豆粕組較其他二組顯著增加21日齡雞隻迴腸及42日齡雞隻空、迴腸肌肉層之厚度(P<0.05)。50%發酵大豆粕組可提高21日齡雞隻迴腸乳酸菌數(P<0.05)及降低大腸桿菌數，並提高42日齡雞隻迴腸總VFA之含量(P<0.05)。100%發酵大豆粕組較其他兩組顯著降低42日齡雞隻盲腸之pH值。發酵大豆粕處理組皆能提高21及42日齡雞隻盲腸內容物之乳酸含量及降低糞中氨濃度(P<0.05)。綜上所述，本發酵大豆粕可取代肉雞飼糧魚粉用量之一半，並降低糞中氨濃度及改善腸道環境之效果。|
In broiler feed, the source for protein is either fish meal (FM) or fermented soybean meal (FSBM). When it comes from the former, the cost is much higher than the latter does. It could lower the cost if replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in broiler diet is possible. But fermented soybean meal contains many anti-nutritional factors which decrease nutrition in quality and availability. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the possibility of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal in broiler diet. Two bacteria species(Aspergillus oryzae and Lactobacillus casei)were applied in solid fermentation could effectively decrease anti-nutritional factors and improve nutritional quality of soybean meals in our previous studies. However, the moisture in fermented product is still up to 60%, it could cause high cost in drying and Millard reaction in heating. In current study, we try to find a suitable condition which has the best water added for fermentation and expect lower cost. Concerning the moisture limit, both on content of available lysine and lower molecular weight peptide are considered as the judged factors, accordingly. Furthermore, the replaced fish meal from fermented soybean meal was used in diet of broiler. Four hundreds fifty broilers with equal sex were divided into 18 cages (3 treatments ×6 duplicates), which were allotted randomly into 3 groups including a control and two FSBM replaced treatments. Two treatment diets were 50 % or 100% FSBM for replaced of FM respectively. In comparison with control, the group of 50% replacement did not significantly on body weight and FCR of broilers. However, the 100% replacement was significantly lower than control group (P<0.05). In both 21 and 42 days old broilers, two treatment groups were lower either in the villus height of the ileum or in the ratio of villus to crypt as compared with control. The 50% replacement group could increase thickness of the ileum's muscular layer in 21 days old broilers and the jejunum's and ileum's muscular layer in 42 days old broilers. The 50% replacement group could increase Lactobacillus counts but decrease coliform counts in the content of ileum in 21 days old broilers (P<0.05). It also could increase concentration of total VFA in the ileal content in 42 days old broilers (P<0.05). The 100% replacement group could decrease pH value in the cecum in 42 days old broilers. Moreover, both groups of FSBM replacement diets could increased Lactobacillus counts in the content of cecum and reduce the concentration ammonia in excreta (P<0.05). Base on those results, we suggest that 50 % FSBM replaced of FM in diet is advantage.
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