Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25116
標題: 於涼與熱季餵飼芻料之種類對肉用山羊瘤胃內熱產生之影響
The effect of feeding different forages during cool and hot seasons on heat production in rumen of meat goats
作者: 周柏文
Chou, Po-Wen
關鍵字: Cool season
涼季
Hot season
Rumen
Ferment
Heat production
熱季
瘤胃
醱酵
熱產生
出版社: 動物科學系所
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摘要: 本試驗之目的是利用瘤胃醱酵時所產生之溫度變化,建立估算各種芻料於瘤胃內熱產生值之方法,並了解台灣氣候環境對反芻動物瘤胃性狀之影響。試驗一、測量肉用山羊瘤胃內容物之比熱容積,於屠宰時收集2肉用山羊瘤胃液5公斤以供分析。測得羊之瘤胃液比熱 (specific heat )為0.969 ± 0.004cal/g℃。試驗二、於涼季使用2頭瘤胃內裝置溫度紀錄器之台灣肉用山羊進行試驗。將3種芻料即百慕達乾草、玉米青貯料及稻草,每次以2種芻料餵予2頭羊成2 × 2拉丁方格,使用3個拉丁方格以致每種芻料重複2次,將每個拉丁方格單位分為前後2期,前期僅餵予芻料後期餵予添加佔總日糧乾物量50%之精料。試驗三、於熱季使用4頭瘤胃內裝置溫度紀錄器之台灣肉用山羊進行試驗。將4種芻料分別餵予4頭羊成4 × 4拉丁方格,將4種芻料即苜蓿粒、百慕達乾草、玉米青貯料及盤固乾草分別餵予4頭羊成4 × 4拉丁方格,將每個拉丁方格單位分為前後2期,前期僅餵予芻料後期餵予添加佔總日糧乾物量50%之精料。瘤胃內熱產生之估算為:瘤胃內容物之重量(g)× 瘤胃內容物之比熱(cal/g℃)× 採食前後之瘤胃溫度差(℃)= 瘤胃內熱產生(cal)。於涼季,百慕達乾草、玉米青貯料及稻草桿等芻料之瘤胃內熱產生分別為7.95、10.8及30.0 Kcal/kgDM,各佔該日糧總能0.18、0.27及0.59%,於日糧含50%精料下測得該芻料日糧瘤胃內熱產生分別為3.40、4.47及7.91 Kcal/kgDM,各佔該日糧總能0.08、0.11及0.19%。於熱季,苜蓿粒、百慕達乾草、玉米青貯料及盤固乾草等芻料之瘤胃內熱產生分別為12.2、7.82、17.5及10.4 Kcal/kgDM,各佔該日糧總能0.16、0.18、0.35及0.27%,於日糧含50%精料下測得該芻料日糧瘤胃內熱產生分別為6.30、4.77、5.46及8.93 Kcal/kgDM,各佔該日糧總能0.11、0.10、0.13及0.17%。台灣肉用山羊不論於涼或熱季,若其飼糧含50%精料皆可有效降低該日糧所致瘤胃內熱產生。於涼季,瘤胃內熱產生分別與瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、芻料乾物質採食量、飲水量及總水份消耗量等之間呈顯著之負相關(P<0.05),又分別與環境溫度及環境溫濕度指數等之間呈正相關之趨勢(P<0.1)。於熱季,瘤胃內熱產生分別與瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量及芻料乾物質採食量等之間呈顯著之負相關(P<0.05)。熱季羊隻在熱緊迫(THI>72)之狀態下,受試羊之採食量減少。由以上結果得知飼糧於瘤胃內熱產生值之高低主要受芻料本質及精料添加之影響。羊隻於熱季會以減少採食量、增加飲水量及改變瘤胃內醱酵路徑等方法降低體熱之產生以因應熱緊迫。
The purpose of this experiment was to establish a way to estimate ruminal heat production via measuring rumen temperature changed by fermentation under the effect of weather condition such as cool and hot seasons in Taiwan on rumen characteristics. Experiment 1 measured the specific heat capacity of rumen content in meat goats. Five kg rumen content was collected from 2 goats after being sacrificed. The specific heat capacity of rumen content measured was 0.9690.004 cal/g C. Experiment 2 included 3 22 Latin squares with 3 forages, i. e., burmuda hay, corn silage and rice straw used during cool seasons. In each Latin squares, 2 of the 3 forages were allotted to 2 Taiwan meat goats. Experiment 3 was conducted during hot seasons according to a 44 Latin square design using 4 Taiwan meat goats and 4 forage, i. e., alfalfa pellet, burmuda hay, corn silage and pangola hay. Both of experiment 2 and 3, each cell or experimental unit in a Latin square was divided into 2 periods, each for 1 wk, and the goat were fed with the designated forage only during the first period and fed with 50 % forage and 50 % concentrate on dry matter basis during the second period. Rumen heat production was calculated by total mass of rumen content (g) rumen specific heat (cal/g C) rumen temperature altered (C). During cool season, the rumen heat production and the percentage of rumen heat production accounting for total gross energy by feeding either burmuda hay, corn silage or rice straw only were 7.95, 10.8, 30.0 Kcal/kg DM and 0.18, 0.27, 0.59 %, respectively, and the rumen heat production and the percentage of rumen heat production accounting for total gross energy by feeding 50 % either burmuda hay, corn silage or rice straw along with 50 % concentrate were 3.40, 4.47, 7.91 Kcal/kg DM and 0.08, 0.11 and 0.19 %, respectively. During hot season, the rumen heat production and the percentage of rumen heat production accounting for total gross energy by feeding either alfalfa pellet, burmuda hay, corn silage or pangola hay only were 12.2, 7.82, 17.5, 10.4 Kcal/kg DM and 0.16, 0.18, 0.35 and 0.27 %, respectively, and the rumen heat production and the percentage of rumen heat production accounting for total gross energy by feeding 50 % either alfalfa pellet, burmuda hay, corn silage or pangola hay along with 50 % concentrate were 6.30, 4.77, 5.46, 8.93 Kcal/kg DM and 0.11, 0.10, 0.13 and 0.17, respectively. Goat fed with forage accompanying concentrate might result in reduced rumen heat production in both of cool and hot seasons. During cool season, production was negatively correlating to rumen temperature, rectal temperature, forage intake, forage dry matter intake, water intake and total water consumption whereas tended to be positively correlating to ambient temperature and temperature humidity index. During hot season, rumen heat production was negatively correlating to rumen temperature, rectal temperature, forage intake and forage dry matter intake. Feed intake of the goats was decreased by heat stress. In conclusion, the extent of rumen heat production is affected by the nature of forages fed whether concentrate fed along with or not. During hot season, goats may get along with heat stress through reducing feed intake, increasing water intake, and altering the pathway of ruminal fermentation.
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