Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25116
DC FieldValueLanguage
dc.contributor徐濟泰zh_TW
dc.contributor張菊犁zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisor范揚廣zh_TW
dc.contributor.author周柏文zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorChou, Po-Wenen_US
dc.contributor.other中興大學zh_TW
dc.date2011zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T07:24:23Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T07:24:23Z-
dc.identifierU0005-0102201020364200zh_TW
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dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/25116-
dc.description.abstract本試驗之目的是利用瘤胃醱酵時所產生之溫度變化,建立估算各種芻料於瘤胃內熱產生值之方法,並了解台灣氣候環境對反芻動物瘤胃性狀之影響。試驗一、測量肉用山羊瘤胃內容物之比熱容積,於屠宰時收集2肉用山羊瘤胃液5公斤以供分析。測得羊之瘤胃液比熱 (specific heat )為0.969 ± 0.004cal/g℃。試驗二、於涼季使用2頭瘤胃內裝置溫度紀錄器之台灣肉用山羊進行試驗。將3種芻料即百慕達乾草、玉米青貯料及稻草,每次以2種芻料餵予2頭羊成2 × 2拉丁方格,使用3個拉丁方格以致每種芻料重複2次,將每個拉丁方格單位分為前後2期,前期僅餵予芻料後期餵予添加佔總日糧乾物量50%之精料。試驗三、於熱季使用4頭瘤胃內裝置溫度紀錄器之台灣肉用山羊進行試驗。將4種芻料分別餵予4頭羊成4 × 4拉丁方格,將4種芻料即苜蓿粒、百慕達乾草、玉米青貯料及盤固乾草分別餵予4頭羊成4 × 4拉丁方格,將每個拉丁方格單位分為前後2期,前期僅餵予芻料後期餵予添加佔總日糧乾物量50%之精料。瘤胃內熱產生之估算為:瘤胃內容物之重量(g)× 瘤胃內容物之比熱(cal/g℃)× 採食前後之瘤胃溫度差(℃)= 瘤胃內熱產生(cal)。於涼季,百慕達乾草、玉米青貯料及稻草桿等芻料之瘤胃內熱產生分別為7.95、10.8及30.0 Kcal/kgDM,各佔該日糧總能0.18、0.27及0.59%,於日糧含50%精料下測得該芻料日糧瘤胃內熱產生分別為3.40、4.47及7.91 Kcal/kgDM,各佔該日糧總能0.08、0.11及0.19%。於熱季,苜蓿粒、百慕達乾草、玉米青貯料及盤固乾草等芻料之瘤胃內熱產生分別為12.2、7.82、17.5及10.4 Kcal/kgDM,各佔該日糧總能0.16、0.18、0.35及0.27%,於日糧含50%精料下測得該芻料日糧瘤胃內熱產生分別為6.30、4.77、5.46及8.93 Kcal/kgDM,各佔該日糧總能0.11、0.10、0.13及0.17%。台灣肉用山羊不論於涼或熱季,若其飼糧含50%精料皆可有效降低該日糧所致瘤胃內熱產生。於涼季,瘤胃內熱產生分別與瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、芻料乾物質採食量、飲水量及總水份消耗量等之間呈顯著之負相關(P<0.05),又分別與環境溫度及環境溫濕度指數等之間呈正相關之趨勢(P<0.1)。於熱季,瘤胃內熱產生分別與瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量及芻料乾物質採食量等之間呈顯著之負相關(P<0.05)。熱季羊隻在熱緊迫(THI>72)之狀態下,受試羊之採食量減少。由以上結果得知飼糧於瘤胃內熱產生值之高低主要受芻料本質及精料添加之影響。羊隻於熱季會以減少採食量、增加飲水量及改變瘤胃內醱酵路徑等方法降低體熱之產生以因應熱緊迫。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe purpose of this experiment was to establish a way to estimate ruminal heat production via measuring rumen temperature changed by fermentation under the effect of weather condition such as cool and hot seasons in Taiwan on rumen characteristics. Experiment 1 measured the specific heat capacity of rumen content in meat goats. Five kg rumen content was collected from 2 goats after being sacrificed. The specific heat capacity of rumen content measured was 0.9690.004 cal/g C. Experiment 2 included 3 22 Latin squares with 3 forages, i. e., burmuda hay, corn silage and rice straw used during cool seasons. In each Latin squares, 2 of the 3 forages were allotted to 2 Taiwan meat goats. Experiment 3 was conducted during hot seasons according to a 44 Latin square design using 4 Taiwan meat goats and 4 forage, i. e., alfalfa pellet, burmuda hay, corn silage and pangola hay. Both of experiment 2 and 3, each cell or experimental unit in a Latin square was divided into 2 periods, each for 1 wk, and the goat were fed with the designated forage only during the first period and fed with 50 % forage and 50 % concentrate on dry matter basis during the second period. Rumen heat production was calculated by total mass of rumen content (g) rumen specific heat (cal/g C) rumen temperature altered (C). During cool season, the rumen heat production and the percentage of rumen heat production accounting for total gross energy by feeding either burmuda hay, corn silage or rice straw only were 7.95, 10.8, 30.0 Kcal/kg DM and 0.18, 0.27, 0.59 %, respectively, and the rumen heat production and the percentage of rumen heat production accounting for total gross energy by feeding 50 % either burmuda hay, corn silage or rice straw along with 50 % concentrate were 3.40, 4.47, 7.91 Kcal/kg DM and 0.08, 0.11 and 0.19 %, respectively. During hot season, the rumen heat production and the percentage of rumen heat production accounting for total gross energy by feeding either alfalfa pellet, burmuda hay, corn silage or pangola hay only were 12.2, 7.82, 17.5, 10.4 Kcal/kg DM and 0.16, 0.18, 0.35 and 0.27 %, respectively, and the rumen heat production and the percentage of rumen heat production accounting for total gross energy by feeding 50 % either alfalfa pellet, burmuda hay, corn silage or pangola hay along with 50 % concentrate were 6.30, 4.77, 5.46, 8.93 Kcal/kg DM and 0.11, 0.10, 0.13 and 0.17, respectively. Goat fed with forage accompanying concentrate might result in reduced rumen heat production in both of cool and hot seasons. During cool season, production was negatively correlating to rumen temperature, rectal temperature, forage intake, forage dry matter intake, water intake and total water consumption whereas tended to be positively correlating to ambient temperature and temperature humidity index. During hot season, rumen heat production was negatively correlating to rumen temperature, rectal temperature, forage intake and forage dry matter intake. Feed intake of the goats was decreased by heat stress. In conclusion, the extent of rumen heat production is affected by the nature of forages fed whether concentrate fed along with or not. During hot season, goats may get along with heat stress through reducing feed intake, increasing water intake, and altering the pathway of ruminal fermentation.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents目錄 壹、中文摘要 1 貳、前言 5 參、文獻檢討 6 一、台灣常見芻料之介紹 6 (一)芻料之來源 6 (二)品種選擇 6 1、禾本科: 6 2、豆科: 7 (三)主要牧草品種介紹 7 1、盤固草 7 2、狼尾草 8 3、南非鴿草 8 4、天竺草 8 5、百慕達草 9 6、羅茲草 9 7、青割玉米 9 8、苜蓿粒 10 9、稻草桿 10 (四)農業副產物 10 1、植物葉片之利用 10 2、作物殘渣及農業副產品之利用 11 二、台灣肉用山羊品種之介紹 12 (一)台灣黑山羊(Taiwan Black Goat) 12 (二)努比亞山羊(Nubian Goat) 13 (三)波爾山羊(Boer Goat) 14 (四)吉安山羊(Jian Goat) 15 三、影響動物生理反應之環境因素 16 (一)物理性因素(Physical factors) 16 (二)化學性因素(Chemical factors) 16 (三)間接因素(Indirect factors) 17 四、溫溼度指數(Temperature humidity index, THI) 19 (一)溫溼度指數計算公式 19 (二)THI對動物造成之影響 19 五、熱生成及熱增生 20 六、瘤胃之醱酵 23 (一)揮發性脂肪酸(VFA) 23 1、VFA來源 23 2、影響瘤胃內總VFA濃度及個別VFA之濃度之因素 24 (1)飼糧組成 24 (2)飼養方式及採樣方法 25 (3)瘤胃之pH值 25 (4)個別VFA之相互轉變 25 (5)環境溫度之影響 26 (二)瘤胃內容物之氨態氮 27 (三)瘤胃內之溫度 27 七、瘤胃內熱產生值之估算 28 (一)熱量計算公式 28 (二)瘤胃內熱產生之估算 28 肆、試驗材料與方法 30 一、試驗I 30 (一)瘤胃內容物之採集 30 (二)比熱容積(Specific heat capacity)之測定 30 1、標準品準備 30 2、步驟 30 二、試驗II 32 (一)試驗設計與處理安排 32 (二)試驗動物及飼養管理 32 (三)飲水及飼料數據之收集 34 (四)瘤胃溫度之收集 35 (五)環境溫度及相對溼度紀錄之收集 38 (六)化學分析 40 1、乾物質(Dry matter, DM)含量之測定 40 2、總熱能(Gross energy, GE)之測定 40 (1)樣品準備 40 (2)步驟 40 3、粗蛋白(Crude protein, CP)含量之測定 41 (1)分解 41 (2)蒸餾與滴定 41 (3)粗蛋白質含量之計算 42 4、乙醚抽出物(Ether extract, EE)含量之測定 42 (1)步驟 42 (2)乙醚抽出物計算公式 42 5、有機質含量之測定 43 (1)步驟 43 (2)灰分與有機質含量之計算 43 6、中洗纖維(Neutral detergent fiber, NDF)含量之測定 43 (1)試藥 43 (2)步驟 43 (3)計算 44 7、酸洗纖維(Acid detergent fiber,ADF)含量之測定 44 (1)試藥 44 (2)步驟 44 8、粗纖維含量之測定 45 (1)試藥 45 (2)步驟 45 (3)計算 45 (七)瘤胃內熱產生值之計算 45 (八)揮發性脂肪酸(volatile fatty acid, VFA)含量之測定 46 1、測定條件 46 2、步驟 46 3、計算 46 (九)、統計分析 47 三、試驗III 48 (一)試驗設計與處理安排 48 (二)試驗動物及飼養管理 48 (三)飲水及飼料數據之收集 49 (四)瘤胃溫度之收集 49 (五)環境溫度及相對溼度紀錄之收集 49 (六)化學分析 50 (七)瘤胃內熱產生值之計算 50 (八)揮發性脂肪酸含量之測定 50 (九)統計分析 50 伍、結果 51 一、試驗I 51 (一)以熱卡計估測待測物比熱之可行性 51 (二)肉用山羊瘤胃內容物比熱之測定 51 二、試驗II 52 (一)台灣肉用山羊於涼季餵飼芻料種類對其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 52 (二)台灣肉用山羊於涼季餵飼併用精料之各種芻料對其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 52 (三)餵飼各種芻料併用精料與否對台灣肉用山羊於涼季之瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 52 (四)台灣肉用山羊於涼季其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生與環境溫、溼度間之淨相關 55 三、試驗III 59 (一)台灣肉用山羊於熱季餵飼芻料種類對其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 59 (二)台灣肉用山羊於熱季餵飼併用精料之各種芻料對其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 59 (三)餵飼各種芻料併用精料與否對台灣肉用山羊於熱季之瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 59 (四)台灣肉用山羊於熱季其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生於熱季與環境溫、溼度間之淨相關 63 陸、討論 66 柒、結論 72 表次 表1 瘤胃內容物乾物率之估算 29 Table 1. The estimation of ruminal dry matter content 29 表2 試驗芻料及精料之化學分析值 33 Table 2. Forages and concentrate chemical components 33 表3 涼季試驗期之溫、溼度狀態 39 Table 3. The temperature and relative humidity during cool season 39 表4 熱季試驗期之溫溼度狀態 49 Table 4. The temperature and relative humidity during hot season 49 表5 反芻動物瘤胃內容物之比熱 51 Table 5. Specific heat of ruminal content 51 表6台灣肉用山羊於涼季餵飼芻料種類對其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 53 Table 6. Effect of feeding various forages on rumen and rectal temperatures, forage and water intake and ruminal heat production in Taiwan meat goats during cool season 53 表7台灣肉用山羊於涼季餵飼併用精料之各種芻料對其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 54 Table 7. Effect of feeding various forages along with concentrate on rumen and rectal temperatures, forage and water intake and ruminal heat production in Taiwan meat goats during cool season 54 表8 餵飼各種芻料以及併用精料與否對台灣肉用山羊於涼季之瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 56 Table 8. Effect of feeding various forages along with concentrate or not on rumen and rectal temperatures, forage and water intake and ruminal heat production in Taiwan meat goats during cool season 56 表9 台灣肉用山羊之瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生於涼季與環境溫、濕度之淨相關 57 Table 9. Partial correlations among rumen and rectal temperatures, feed and water intake ambient temperature and humidity in Taiwan meat goats during cool season 57 表10台灣肉用山羊於熱季餵飼芻料種類對其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 60 Table 10. Effect of feeding various forages on rumen and rectal temperatures, forage and water intake and ruminal heat production in Taiwan meat goats during hot season 60 表11台灣肉用山羊於熱季餵飼併用精料之各種芻料對其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 61 Table 11. Effect of feeding various forages along with concentrate on rumen and rectal temperatures, forage and water intake and ruminal heat production in Taiwan meat goats during hot season 61 表12 餵飼各種芻料以及併用精料與否對台灣肉用山羊於熱季之瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生之影響 62 Table 12. Effect of feeding various forages along with concentrate or not on rumen and rectal temperatures, forage and water intake and ruminal heat production in Taiwan meat goats during hot season 62 表13台灣肉用山羊於熱季其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生與環境溫溼度之淨相關 65 Table 13. Partial correlations among rumen and rectal temperatures, feed and water intake ambient temperature and humidity in Taiwan meat goats during cool season 65 表14台灣肉用山羊其瘤胃溫度、直腸溫度、芻料採食量、飲水量及瘤胃內熱產生於涼、熱季之變化 68 Table 14. Changes of rumen and rectal temperatures, forage and water intake and ruminal heat production in Taiwan meat goats between cool and hot seasons 68 表15台灣肉用山羊其瘤胃內揮發性脂肪酸濃度於涼熱季之變化 71 Table 15. Changes of VFA concentration in Taiwan meat goats between cool and hot seasons 71 圖次 圖 1 台灣山羊。 12 Fig. 1 Taiwan black goat. 12 圖 2 努比亞山羊。 13 Fig. 2 Nubian goat. 13 圖 3 波爾山羊。 14 Fig. 3 Boer goat. 14 圖 4 吉安山羊。 15 Fig. 4 Jian goat. 15 圖 5 影響動物之環境因素。 18 Fig. 5 Factors surrounding animal. 18 圖 6能量採食後,於動物體內利用之情形。 21 Fig. 6 Energy use in animal. 21 圖 7 U12不銹鋼溫度記錄器。 35 Fig. 7 U12 stainless temperature logger. 35 圖 8 溫度紀錄器準備置入台灣肉用山羊瘤胃。 36 Fig. 8 A temperature logger was being put in the rumen of a Taiwan meat goat. 36 圖 9 溫度紀錄器置入台灣肉用山羊瘤胃。 36 Fig. 9 A temperature logger was put in the rumen of a Taiwan meat goat. 36 圖 10 獸醫師以外科手術將設定完成之溫度紀錄器置入瘤胃內。 37 Fig. 10 The veterinarians were finishing up a surgical operation for setting up a temperature logger in the rumen of Taiwan meat goat. 37 圖 11 U14 LCD溫溼度記錄器。 38 Fig. 11 U14 LCD logger for recording temperature and humidity. 38 附表次 附表1 於涼季餵予不同芻料併用精料後台灣肉用山羊之每日直腸溫度變化 82 Supplement table 1. Changes of daily rectal temperature in Taiwan meat goats after feeding various forages along with concentrate during cool season 82 附表2 於涼季餵予不同芻料併用精料後台灣肉用山羊之每日瘤胃溫度變化 83 Supplement table 2. Changes of daily rumen temperature in Taiwan meat goats after feeding various forages along with concentrate during cool season 83 附表3 於涼季餵予不同芻料併用精料後台灣肉用山羊之每日芻料採食量變化 84 Supplement table 3. Changes of daily forage intake in Taiwan meat goats after feeding various forages along with concentrate during cool season 84 附表4 台灣肉用山羊於涼季之直腸溫度及瘤胃溫度與當日環境溫、溼度之相關 85 Supplement table 4. Correlations among rectal temperature, rumen temperature, ambient temperature and humidity in Taiwan meat goats during cool season 85 附表5 台灣肉用山羊於涼季之採食量及飲水量與當日環境溫、溼度之相關 86 Supplement table 5. Correlations among feed intake, water intake, ambient temperature and humidity in Taiwan meat goats during cool season 86 附表6 於熱季餵予不同芻料併用精料後台灣肉用山羊之每日直腸溫度變化 87 Supplement table 6. Changes of daily rectal temperature in Taiwan meat goats after feeding various forages along with concentrate during hot season 87 附表7 於熱季餵予不同芻料併用精料後台灣肉用山羊之每日瘤胃溫度變化 88 Supplement table 7. Changes of daily rumen temperature in Taiwan meat goats after feeding various forages along with concentrate during hot season 88 附表8 於熱季餵予不同芻料併用精料後台灣肉用山羊之每日芻料採食量變化 89 Supplement table 8. Changes of daily forage intake in Taiwan meat goats after feeding various forages along with concentrate during hot season 89 附表9 台灣肉用山羊於熱季之直腸溫度及瘤胃溫度與當日環境溫、溼度之相關 90 Supplement table 9. Correlations among rectal temperature, rumen temperature, ambient temperature and humidity in Taiwan meat goats during hot season 90 附表10 台灣肉用山羊於熱季之採食量及飲水量與當日環境溫、溼度之相關 91 Supplement table 10. Correlations among feed intake, water intake, ambient temperature and humidity in Taiwan meat goats during hot season 91 附表11 羊隻於涼季之瘤胃溫度(Y,℃)對每日營養份採食量(X, g)之回歸方程式 92 Supplement table 11. The regression of rumen temperature (Y,℃) on daily nutrient intake ( X, g) during cool season 92 附表12 羊隻於熱季之瘤胃溫度(Y,℃)對每日營養份採食量(X, g)之回歸方程式 93 Supplement table 12. The regression of rumen temperature (Y,℃) on daily nutrient intake ( X, g) during hot season 93zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher動物科學系所zh_TW
dc.relation.urihttp://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-0102201020364200en_US
dc.subjectCool seasonen_US
dc.subject涼季zh_TW
dc.subjectHot seasonen_US
dc.subjectRumenen_US
dc.subjectFermenten_US
dc.subjectHeat productionen_US
dc.subject熱季zh_TW
dc.subject瘤胃zh_TW
dc.subject醱酵zh_TW
dc.subject熱產生zh_TW
dc.title於涼與熱季餵飼芻料之種類對肉用山羊瘤胃內熱產生之影響zh_TW
dc.titleThe effect of feeding different forages during cool and hot seasons on heat production in rumen of meat goatsen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
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