Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25131
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dc.contributor.advisor詹德芳zh_TW
dc.contributor.advisorDer-Fang Janen_US
dc.contributor.author黃瓊芬zh_TW
dc.contributor.authorHuang, Chiung-Fenen_US
dc.date2001zh_TW
dc.date.accessioned2014-06-06T07:24:25Z-
dc.date.available2014-06-06T07:24:25Z-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11455/25131-
dc.description.abstract本試驗之目的即在探討以熱擠壓處理大豆粕(heat extruded soybean meal, HESBM)為瘤胃未降解蛋白質之來源,配合飼糧不同蛋白質水準(15 vs.16.5﹪)探討對荷蘭泌乳牛血漿尿素氮濃度、瘤胃及生產性狀之影響。試驗一以in situ測定經熱擠壓處理大豆粕(110、141 ℃),不同時間點培養於瘤胃中之蛋白質降解率與蛋白質品質之變化;結果顯示,141 ℃熱擠壓大豆粕其粗蛋白質快速可溶部分減少、潛在可降解部分增加與其降解速率減緩及並提高瘤胃中未降解蛋白質之比例。飼糧中之粗蛋白質以141 ℃熱擠壓大豆粕全量取代大豆粕並配合不同粗蛋白質水準,進行動物試驗。選取四頭裝置瘤胃廔管之荷蘭乾乳牛及二十頭荷蘭泌乳牛,試驗分別以4×4拉丁方格設計進行,每期3週,共十二週。試驗二瘤胃性狀方面,pH值、乙酸、丙酸、乙/丙酸比皆未受處理之影響(P>0.05),氨態氮濃度以蛋白質水準高組(16.5﹪CP)極顯著較高(P<0.01),且熱擠壓大豆粕組有降低之趨勢(P=0.08)。試驗三生產性狀方面,產乳量、3.5%乳脂校正乳及乳成分皆未因處理而有所差異(P>0.05),16.5﹪粗蛋白質顯著提高乳蛋白質產量(P<0.05),並有增加乳糖(P=0.09)及乳固形物(P=0.06)產量之趨勢。以15﹪粗蛋白質血液中尿素氮濃度極顯著降低(P<0.01),且添加熱擠壓大豆粕亦顯著降低(P<0.05)。綜合以上結果顯示,添加熱擠壓大豆粕以提供瘤胃未降解蛋白質,雖未提高產乳量,但減低蛋白質在瘤胃中之降解速率,進而降低瘤胃液中氨態氮及血液中尿素氮濃度;高蛋白質水準(16.5% )較低蛋白質水準(15% )有提高乳蛋白質、乳糖及乳固形物產量之效果。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of heat extruded soybean meal versus different dietary protein levels on plasma urea nitrogen concentration, rumen, and milk characteristics of Holstein cows. In trial 1, was to evaluate the degradation and quality changes of soybean meal after processing heat extrusion at 110 and 141℃ by in situ method. The results showed that the solubility and potential protein of 141℃ extruded soybean meal increased, either the degraded portion, rate of disappearance, and available lysine decreased. The experiment was designed as 4×4 Latin square which were allotted four rumen cannulated dry milk cows and twenty lactating cows into four dietary treatments and lasting for twenty weeks. As regarding rumen characteristics in trial 2, the rumen pH value, acetate, propionate, and acetate/ propionate molar percentage were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments (P>0.05). The more ammonia concentration appeared in high dietary protein condition (P<0.05), and tend to decrease when supplementing heat extruded soybean meal (P=0.08). As for milk performance in trial 3, the dietary treatments would not significantly affected milk production, 3.5% fat corrected milk production and milk compositions (P>0.05). The dietary protein content of 16.5% significantly increase milk protein yield (P<0.05), mean white tend to raise milk lactose (P=0.09) and milk total solids yield (P=0.06). The plasma urea nitrogen content reduce significantly when 15 percentage of dietary protein applied (P<0.01) and decreased as well when supplemental heat extruded soybean meal (P<0.05). In conclusion, supplemental heat extruded soybean meal which provides more ruminal undegradable protein would not raise milk production, but could subtract protein degradation rate, ruminal ammonia, and plasma urea nitrogen concentration. High percentage of dietary protein improves milk protein, milk lactose, and milk total solids yield.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents壹、 摘要---------------------------------------------------1 貳、 前言---------------------------------------------------2 參、 文獻檢討 一、 大豆粕之營養特性與反芻動物之營養關係------------------3 二、 未降解蛋白質之評估------------------------------------3 (一) 蛋白質降解率測定方法--------------------------------6 (二) 原位測定法與實體及實驗室測定法之比較----------------6 (三) 影響蛋白質降解率之因素------------------------------7 三、目前提升大豆粕過瘤胃蛋白質比例之處理方法-------------10 (一) 烘烤------------------------------------------------11 (二) 擠壓------------------------------------------------11 (三) 壓榨------------------------------------------------11 (四) 木質硫酸鹽液處理------------------------------------11 四、加熱處理對大豆粕中蛋白質及胺基酸之影響--------------12 五、 瘤胃相關性狀-----------------------------------------13 (一) pH值------------------------------------------------13 (二) 揮發性脂肪酸----------------------------------------14 1. 影響瘤胃內總揮發性脂肪酸濃度及個別揮發性脂肪酸莫耳百分比之因素------------------------------------------------14 2. 揮發性脂肪酸之吸收------------------------------------15 3. 揮發性脂肪酸之代謝與利用------------------------------16 六、 反芻動物瘤胃中氮之來源、代謝與微生物蛋白質之合成----17 (一) 氮的來---------------------------------------------17 (二) 微生物蛋白質的合成----------------------------------17 七、 乳牛蛋白質需要量之系統------------------------------17 八、 瘤胃未降解蛋白質之飼養價值--------------------------19 (一)經熱處理之大豆粕為瘤胃未降解蛋白質來源對泌乳牛採食量、體重變化、生產性狀與產乳效率之影響-------------------20 (二)不同處理形式之大豆粕對泌乳牛採食量、體重變化與產乳效率之影響---------------------------------------------20 九、 熱緊迫之效應-----------------------------------------21 肆、 試驗材料與方法 試驗一:以in situ評估熱擠壓大豆粕未降解蛋白質含量---25 試驗二:熱擠壓大豆粕與飼糧蛋白質水準對乾乳荷蘭牛瘤胃性狀之影響--------------------------------------28 試驗三:熱擠壓大豆粕與飼糧蛋白質水準對泌乳荷蘭牛血漿尿 素氮濃度及生產性狀性狀之影響------------------31 伍、 結果與討論 一、 熱擠壓大豆粕蛋白質降解率之評估(試驗一)--------------34 二、 熱擠壓處理對大豆粕胺基酸組成之影響-------------------36 三、 瘤胃中pH值與氨態氮濃度之變化(試驗二)---------------38 四、 瘤胃中總揮發性脂肪酸濃度及個別揮發性脂肪酸之變化-----39 五、 熱緊迫效應(試驗三)-----------------------------------44 六、 產乳量與乳成分----------------------------------------45 七、 血漿尿素氮濃度----------------------------------------46 陸、 結論--------------------------------------------------58 柒、 參考文獻----------------------------------------------61 捌、 英文摘要----------------------------------------------74 表次 頁次 表一、大豆粕與其他油籽粕之胺基酸組成分------------------------------5 表二、飼料原料中氮的分類及蛋白質之份化------------------------------9 表三、試驗飼糧之組成及營養成分-----------------------------------------33 表四、大豆粕與熱擠壓大豆粕粗蛋白質在瘤胃中降解模式之比較--35 表五、大豆粕與熱擠壓大豆粕中未降解蛋白質之胺基酸組成--------37 表六、熱擠壓大豆粕及不同蛋白質水準對廔管牛瘤胃性狀之影響---43 表七、試驗期間每週平均溫度、濕度及溫濕度指數之記錄-----------48 表八、熱擠壓大豆粕及不同蛋白質水準對泌乳牛乾物質採食量及生產性狀之影響----------------------------------------------------------49 表九、熱擠壓大豆粕及不同蛋白質水準對泌乳牛體重變化及血漿尿素氮濃度之影響-------------------------------------------------------50 圖次 頁次 圖一、大豆粕的製造流程-----------------------------------------------------4 圖二、利用硼酸磷酸緩衝液、中性洗劑及酸性洗劑區分蛋白質之組成分-----------------------------------------------------------------------8 圖三、反芻動物對氮的消化、吸收及代謝---------------------------------18 圖四、預測乳牛熱緊迫之溫濕度指數表-----------------------------------24 圖五、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液pH值之變化----------------------40 圖六、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液氨態氮濃度之變化----------------41 圖七、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液總揮發性脂肪酸濃度之變化------42 附圖一、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液乙酸莫耳百分比之變化--------51 附圖二、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液丙酸莫耳百分比之變化--------52 附圖三、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液乙/丙酸比之變化---------------53 附圖四、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液丁酸莫耳百分比之變化--------54 附圖五、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液異丁酸莫耳百分比之變化-----55 附圖六、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液戊酸莫耳百分比之變化--------56 附圖七、瘤胃廔管牛於採食後瘤胃液異戊酸莫耳百分比之變化-----57zh_TW
dc.language.isoen_USzh_TW
dc.publisher畜產學系zh_TW
dc.subjectheat extruded soybean mealen_US
dc.subject熱擠壓大豆粕zh_TW
dc.subjectdietary protein levelsen_US
dc.subjecthot environmenten_US
dc.subject飼糧蛋白質水準zh_TW
dc.subject熱環境zh_TW
dc.title熱擠壓大豆粕與飼糧蛋白質水準對熱環境下荷蘭乳牛血漿尿素氮濃度、瘤胃及生產性狀之影響zh_TW
dc.titleEffects of Heat Extruded Soybean Meal and Dietary Protein Levels on Plasma Urea Nitrogen Concentration, Rumen, and Milk Characteristics of Holstein Cows in Hot Environmenten_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
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