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Effect of Dietary Copper and Zinc Contents on Growth Performance and Metabolism of Copper and Zinc and Their Correlations with Dietary F-2 Toxin (zearalenone) Level in Nursery Piglets
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Sci. 72: 2395-2043.|
許多保育豬之飼糧使用高銅鋅含量以減少消化道疾病的發生和促進生長性能。保育豬攝取的礦物質大多未蓄積於體內，而是透過糞便及尿液排出。糞便及尿液中殘餘之礦物質，特別是銅和鋅，會對環境形成汙染之風險，若將保育豬飼糧中之礦物質含量適當調整可使汙染問題減少。此外，飼糧中含有Fusarium spp.會產生如Zearalenone （ZON）之黴菌毒素，而對禽畜產生不利於健康和生長之影響。飼糧中含有高銅鋅含量或可減少真菌生長進而降低黴菌毒素之產生。但其作用機制還須更進一步的驗證。本篇論文之目的即為研究飼糧中低濃度銅鋅含量對保育豬生長性狀與銅鋅代謝之影響以及與飼糧中Zearalenone含量之相關。結果表示，保育豬餵飼銅含量為 12 mg/kg且鋅含量為60 mg/kg或銅含量為24 mg/kg且鋅含量為120 mg/kg之飼糧於生長試驗結束時之體重較高（P = 0.0063）且日增重為最高（P = 0.0008）。飼料換肉率和每日飼料消耗量不受生長試驗之飼糧之銅鋅含量之影響，但代謝試驗之保育豬餵飼銅含量為 12 mg/kg且鋅含量為60 mg/kg和銅含量為12 mg/kg且鋅含量為90 mg/kg之飼糧其飼料換肉率較高（P = 0.0177）。保育豬血清中鋅含量不受飼糧中銅鋅含量之改變而有所差異，但生長試驗保育豬餵飼銅含量為 150 mg/kg且鋅含量為140 mg/kg之飼糧2週後其血清銅濃度為最高。下痢指數不受飼糧中銅鋅含量之改變而有所差異。保育豬之營養分消化率和能量及氮之平衡不受試驗飼糧中銅鋅含量之改變而有所差異。保育豬餵飼銅含量為150 ppm且鋅含量為140 ppm之飼糧對銅之蓄積量（mg/d）為最高（P = 0.0001）。保育豬餵飼高銅鋅含量之飼糧其糞便及尿液之銅鋅含量較餵飼低銅鋅含量飼糧者高。飼糧之鋅量（mg/kg）與ZON含量（μg/kg）間呈顯著負相關（r = -0.4692, P = 0.0319）顯示鋅可作為抑黴劑來抑制黴菌毒素產生，此或可解釋為何銅含量為 150 mg/kg且鋅含量為140 mg/kg之飼糧未能檢測出ZON。綜上所述，飼糧銅含量為 12 mg/kg且鋅含量為60 mg/kg或飼糧銅含量為 24 mg/kg且鋅含量為120 mg/kg對於保育豬可提供較佳之生長及較低之排泄物銅鋅殘留。鋅可作為抑黴劑來控制黴菌毒素產生，此點還需要進一步的研究驗證。|
Abstract Many piglet diets contain high levels of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in order to reduce the incidence of digestive disorder and improve growth performance. Most of trace minerals ingested by piglets are not retained but excreted via feces and urine. Emission of trace minerals to the environment raises environmental pollution risks, especially for Cu and Zn. The problem can be reduced by appropriate inclusion of the minerals in the feed for piglets. Moreover, feed contaminated by Fusarium fungi may produce mycotoxins, for instance zearalenone (ZON), and lead to adverse effects on health and production of animals. High level of Cu and Zn in diets may be a way to reduce mycotoxin production from fungi. However, its efficacy needs of further confirmation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rations containing low Cu and Zn levels on growth performance and metabolism of Cu and Zn for nursery piglets and to study their correlations to dietary ZON level. The results showed that dietary contents of 12 mg Cu/kg plus 60 mg Zn/kg or 24 mg Cu/kg plus 120 mg Zn/kg resulted in greater final body weight (P = 0.0063) and average daily gain (P = 0.0008) in growth trial. Feed conversion ratio (FC) and daily feed consumption (g/d) were not affected by dietary Cu and Zn levels in growth trial, but FC was greater (P = 0.0177) in pigs fed with 12 mg Cu/kg plus 60 mg Zn/kg containing diet and 12 mg Cu/kg plus 90 mg Zn/kg containing diet in metabolism trial. Varying dietary Cu and Zn levels resulted in no difference of serum Zn concentration but the highest serum Cu concentration resulted in pigs fed with 150 mg Cu/kg plus 140 mg Zn/kg at week two of the experiment. There were no differences in diarrhea score by varying dietary Cu and Zn contents. Other than that, there were no difference in the digestibilities of nutrients and balance of energy and nitrogen among the treatments of varying dietary Cu and Zn contents. The highest Cu was retention (mg/d) (P = 0.0001) in pigs fed 150 ppm Cu plus 140 ppm Zn containing diet. High Cu and Zn containing ration resulted in more fecal and urinary excretion of Cu and Zn when compared with low Cu and Zn containing rations. There was a negative correlation between dietary contents of Zn (mg/kg) and ZON (µg/kg) (r = -0.4692, P = 0.0319) indicating that Zn might be a mold inhibitor for reducing mycotoxin production and that might explain why ZON could not be detected in diet containing 150 mg Cu/kg plus 140 mg Zn/kg. In conclusion, dietary contents of 12 mg Cu/kg plus 60 mg Zn/kg or of 24 mg Cu/kg plus 120 mg Zn/kg may be the suitable levels for nursery piglets to support optimal growth and low excretion of Cu and Zn. Zinc may be a mold inhibitor to control mycotoxin production, which deserves more researches to confirm it.
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