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Use the in vitro gas production technique to simulate the hindgut fermentation of pigs
in vitro gas production technique
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|摘要:||本研究之目的為建構模擬豬隻後腸醱酵作用之體外氣體生成系統 (In vitro gas production technique, IVGPT)，並探討飼料原料於豬隻後腸醱酵之模式，IVGPT是藉由醱酵過程之動態氣體生成量評估醱酵作用之模式與程度。試驗首先以飼料原料 (玉米、脫殼大麥、小麥及馬鈴薯澱粉) 為基質，分別依不同之培養時間 (24或48小時)、接種物濃度 (5、10或20%) 及接種物來源 (直腸內容物或糞便) 進行體外醱酵模擬試驗，由醱酵動力學特性選擇體外醱酵模擬試驗之最適培養條件。結果顯示，可將上述原料依微生物利用速率之快慢區分成快速 (玉米、小麥及脫殼大麥) 及慢速 (馬鈴薯澱粉) 醱酵原料等兩類。選擇以48小時為體外培養之時間，微生物可將慢速醱酵之馬鈴薯澱粉充分醱酵利用，提高醱酵動力學特性之準確性。使用高濃度 (10及20%) 之接種物可提高氣體生成速率並縮短微生物醱酵作用之延遲時間，使體外醱酵作用得以迅速開始。以直腸接種物之氣體生成速率較糞便接種物快，且醱酵作用延遲時間較短，但兩種接種物之氣體生成量相近，而醱酵作用開始時間均以馬鈴薯澱粉最晚，且氣體生成速率均以玉米最快，顯示兩接種物對同一種基質具有相同之醱酵模式，因此選擇以方便取得之新鮮糞便作為接種物之來源。進ㄧ步將原料經體外消化處理之殘渣做為基質，探討體外消化處理對飼料原料醱酵模式及醱酵終產物濃度之影響，並與in vivo醱酵終產物之結果比較。結果顯示，所有原料經體外消化處理後，氣體生成量、氣體生成速率及總揮發性脂肪酸濃度均顯著降低 (P<0.05)。原料經體外消化處理後，醱酵終產物之總揮發性脂肪酸濃度 (X) 與in vivo結果 (Y) 之線性關係為Y=0.047+0.112X (R2=0.7231)。綜上所述，本研究建立以事先經體外消化處理之基質與新鮮糞便為來源之接種物進行體外醱酵模擬試驗以模擬豬隻後腸醱酵作用之體外氣體生成系統，可評估飼料原料於豬隻後腸醱酵程度與模式之參考，並將上述飼料原料區分成快速與慢速醱酵兩類，亦可預估飼料原料於豬隻後腸醱酵產生總揮發性脂肪酸之濃度。|
The purpose of this study was to establish an in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT) to stimulate the hindgut fermentation of pigs, and evaluate the fermentation of feedstuffs in pigs. The IVGPT evaluate the pattern and extent of fermentation by the kinetic characteristics of gas production. Use the feedstuffs (corn, dehulled barley, wheat, and potato starch) as the substrates, fermented with the different incubated time (24 and 48 h), concentration (5, 10 and 20%) and the source (rectal content and feces) of inoculum to set the incubated condition of IVGPT. After the experiment, feedstuffs can be classified into rapidly (corn, wheat and dehulled barley) and constantly (potato starch) fermentative feedstuffs by the kinetics of fermentation characteristics. Potato starch, which is the constantly fermentative feedstuffs, can be sufficiently fermented by microbial in 48 h to evaluate the kinetics of fermentation characteristics more accurately. The fermentation incubated by inoculums in high concentrations (10 and 20%) can increase the rate of gas production, and decrease the lag time of fermentation, make the fermentation of microbial began as soon as possible. Although, the rectal inoculum has the higher rate of gas production and shorter lag time of fermentation than the fecal inoculum, the gas production at the end of fermentation were similar in two inoculums. Furthermore, potato starch has the longest lag time of fermentation, and corn has the highest gas production rate in both two inoculums. As a result, the same substrate, which incubated with different inoculums had the similar pattern of fermentation, and the feces was much easier to obtain than the rectal content, the feces will be a suitable source of inoculum for the IVGPT. The effect of 2-step in vitro digestion on the kinetics of fermentation characteristics, and concentration of fermentation end products of feedstuffs was evaluated, and correlated with the in vivo results. The results showed the gas production, the rate of gas production, and concentration of total volatile fatty acids (tVFA) in fermentation end products were significantly decrease in all feedstuffs, treat with the 2-step in vitro digestion (P<0.05). After the 2-step in vitro digestion, the concentration of tVFA showed a high correlation between in vitro (X) and in vivo (Y) results Y=0.047+0.112X (R2=0.7231). In conclusion, the IVGPT established in this study can classify the feedstuffs into rapid and constant fermentation, evaluate the pattern and extent of fermentation, and predict the concentration of tVFA produced from the feedstuffs fermented in the hindgut of pigs.
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