Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25397
標題: 不同修整雞腿碎肉替代量及乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉添加對重組雞肉火腿品質影響之研究
Study of the quality of restructured chicken ham with different replacing amounts of chicken leg trimming and addition of sodium lactate/sodium diacetate
作者: 蕭俊龍
Shiao, Chen-Lung
關鍵字: chicken leg trimming
雞腿碎肉
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 台灣加入WTO後,加工廠進口大量雞腿肉,並於分切過程伴隨產生大量碎肉,如何將此大量碎肉加工變成高附加值產品,為一值得研究的課題。另外一般雞肉製品常因水份、水活性及蛋白質含量較一般成品高,容易造成微生物的滋生,如何利用不同物理或化學方法有效抑制微生物的生長,適度延長製品的展售壽命,亦為另一重要的研究課題。本試驗即針對上述二項需求而設計,主要分為二部分,試驗一為利用添加不同百分率修整雞腿碎肉及10%雞里脊肉,製成重組雞肉火腿,進行各項品質分析,藉以選出總體接受性最佳的一組。試驗二為添加乳酸納/二醋酸鈉對儲藏試驗的效果評估,以試驗一選出接受性最佳的一組,配合不同添加量的乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉進行四週保存試驗分析,評估各項品質特性,期以本試驗建立修整雞腿碎肉及雞里脊肉的最佳使用模式。 一般理化特性方面,以100%的修整雞腿碎肉取代量之重組雞肉火腿其水份及脂肪含量均高於其它處理組別,而蛋白質、灰分及pH值則各組取代量之間無顯著差異。就烹調失重而言,100%的修整雞腿碎肉取代量者具有最低烹調失重。剪切值與拉力測試方面,50%與75%修整雞腿碎肉取代量者有顯著較高之剪切值;而25%與50%修整雞腿碎肉取代量者則有顯著較低的拉力。在官能品評方面,75%修整雞腿碎肉取代量的產品在嫩度、多汁性、質地等方面皆優於其它各組,且具有最佳之總接受度。 添加1%或2%乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉於75%修整雞腿碎肉之重組雞肉火腿中並不會影響其化學組成及pH值。而儲藏四週結束後,添加1或2%乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉的處理組pH值均高於對照組。在烹調失重方面,添加2%乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉可得到最低的烹調失重;而在滲出率分析部分,各處理組與對照組均無顯著差異;TBA值顯示乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉的添加對脂質氧化無顯著抑制效果。在微生物方面,添加乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉可有效抑制重組雞肉火腿的總生菌數與乳酸菌菌數的成長,在7℃的儲藏環璄下,儲藏時間可達4週。L、a、b值變化,添加乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉的處理組其L值與b值與對照組在儲藏過程無顯著差異;而a值則隨著時間越長,對照組就高於處理組。在官能品評方面,添加2%乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉之重組雞肉火腿於多汁性及總接受度上較添加1%乳酸鈉/二醋酸鈉之重組雞肉火腿為佳但不顯著。 綜觀上述結果,以75%修整雞腿碎肉的取代量來製作重組雞肉火腿,輔以添加1~2%的乳酸鈉/二醋酸納,儲藏在7℃環境下,儲藏時間可達4週,且其各項品質分析均有良好表現,並對官能品評不會造成影響。因此,其可作為修整雞腿碎肉未來在禽肉加工上一個有效且具有經濟價值性的參考。
It is a worthy study program for utilization of chicken leg trimmings which was produced from imported chicken leg to make value-added products after Taiwan as a member of World Trade Organization (WTO). Due to high level of moisture and protein, the products with chicken leg trimmings are easily contaminated with microorganisms. How to prolong shelf-life of these products by a physical and chemical way was another important research topic. In the first trial, different amounts of chicken leg trimmings and 10% tender loin were to replace chicken leg meat for manufacturing restructured chicken ham. In the second trial, two levels (1 or 2%) of sodium lactate/ sodium diacetate were added to restructured chicken ham which was selected by the best overall acceptance in trial 1, than, stored at 7℃ for 4weeks. Some items such as total plate count, TBA, color, pH and sensory panel test were determined to establish the best producing model of restructured chicken ham with chicken leg trimming. The results of the first trial were showed as follows: the crude protein and pH value of restructured chicken hams were not affected by replacing of chicken leg trimmings. However, moisture and crude fat content of hams increased with replacing amount of trimmings. In aspect of cooking loss, the restructured chicken ham with 100% of chicken leg trimmings had the lowest cooking loss value. The replacing amount of trimmings had a negative effect on the tension of restored chicken ham. The hams with replacing amount of 25% and 50% had the significantly lowest tension value. On the contrary, the replacing amount of trimmings had a positive effect on the shear force of restored chicken ham. The chicken hams with replacing amount of 50% and 75% had the significantly highest shear force value. In sensory panel test, the restructured chicken ham with 75% trimmings had the best overall acceptability in this research. The results of the second trial were showed as follows: the chemical contents and pH value of restructured chicken hams with 75% trimmings were not affected by addition of two levels (1 or 2%) of sodium lactate/ sodium diacetate. At the end of storage, pH value of restructured chicken ham with 1 or 2% sodium lactate/sodium diacetate were higher than the control. In cooking loss, the restructured chicken hams with 2% sodium lactate/ sodium diacetate had the lowest cooking loss value. Retarding lipid oxidation (TBA value) of restructured chicken hams were not affected by addition of sodium lactate/ sodium diacetate. In microbiology, the bactericidal efficiency of sodium lactate/ sodium diacetate on lactic acid bacteria and total plate count in restructured chicken ham increased with addition levels and prolonged storage time up to 4 weeks. L and b value of restructured chicken hams were not affected with addition of sodium lactate/ sodium diacetate. However, a value of the control was higher than that of treatments with storage time. In aspect of sensory panel test, the scores of juiciness and overall acceptance of restructured chicken hams with 2% sodium lactate/sodium diacetate were higher than those of products with 1% sodium lactate/sodium diacetate, but no significant differences were found each other. Overall conclusion, the restructured chicken ham with 75% chicken leg trimming and addition of 1 or 2% sodium lactate/ sodium diacetate be accepted by the panelists when stored at 7℃ for 4weeks. Therefore, these results could be as better references in developing a new and effective poultry processing technology for chicken leg trimmings in the future.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25397
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