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Investigating the Causes Affecting the Incidence of Angel Wings in Geese
|摘要:||本研究之目的，乃在探討造成鵝隻飛機翼發生率之原因。試驗一探討白羅曼鵝飛機翼之外貌及骨架結構上之特徵。結果顯示，依外貌所見鵝隻之飛機翼係其翼之第三及第四掌骨關節處至末端向體側外翻所致。另依X-ray顯相之骨架結構推測，造成白羅曼鵝飛機翼之原因為其腕骨關節之韌帶異常所致。試驗二測定正常翼與飛機翼之14週齡白羅曼鵝其血清、主翼羽、橈骨及尺骨中銅、鐵、錳及鋅之含量。結果顯示正常翼者之主翼羽鋅含量較飛機翼者高(101 vs. 84.5 μg/mL, P < 0.05)，而橈骨之鐵含量則較低(46.3 vs. 60.3 μg/mL, P < 0.05)。試驗三調查遺傳與性別對白羅曼鵝飛機翼發生率之影響。結果顯示，親代具飛機翼之鵝隻，其8週齡與14週齡子代之飛機翼發生率，均較親代為正常翼者高(8週齡: 40.6 vs. 19.7%。14週齡: 47.5 vs. 29.4%; P < 0.01)。雌鵝之飛機翼發生率則高於雄鵝者(42.9 vs. 28.8%, P < 0.05)。試驗四則探討飼養密度、飼養制度與品種對3至6週齡鵝隻生長性能、飛機翼發生率與血清中銅、鐵、錳、鋅含量之影響，試驗以4〔飼養密度(8、12、16、20隻/12.3 m2/欄)〕 × 2【飼養制度〔3或5週齡由育雛期飼糧(20 % CP, 2900 kcal ME/kg)改為生長期飼糧(15 % CP, 3000 kcal ME/kg)〕】之複因子設計，每處理2欄，每欄均豢養白色華鵝4隻。結果顯示，飼料效率以5週齡換料者較3週齡換料者佳(P < 0.05)， 飼養密度為8或16隻/欄之鵝隻較飼養密度為12或20隻/欄者佳(P < 0.01)。主翼羽之生長速度，以低飼養密度8或12隻/欄之鵝隻較高飼養密度16或20隻/欄者快(P < 0.01)，5週齡換料者較3週齡換料者快(P < 0.05)。鵝隻之飛機翼發生率平均為8.6%，飼養密度與飼養制度對鵝隻飛機翼之發生率無顯著影響。白色華鵝之飛機翼發生率較白羅曼鵝者高(15% vs. 6.3%, P < 0.01)。正常翼與飛機翼鵝隻於5及7週齡，其血清中之銅、鐵、錳、鋅之含量並無顯著差異。本試驗結論認為，鵝隻飛機翼之形成乃為其腕骨關節之韌帶異常所致，其主翼羽中之鋅含量顯著較正常翼者低，而橈骨中之鐵含量則顯著較高。遺傳、品種與性別皆對鵝隻之飛機翼發生率有所影響。飼養密度及飼養制度雖影響3-6週齡鵝隻之飼料效率，惟對飛機翼發生率之影響不顯著。|
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors influencing the incidence of angel (twisted) wings (IAW) in geese. Trial 1 was observing the morphologies of body and bones of twisted wings in White Roman goose. The twisted wings were characterized in that they were rotated outward away from body laterals at the carpometacarpus from the joint between the third and fourth metacarpals all the way down to the end of the wing. Abnormal ligaments at carpal joint might be attributed to the twisted wings according to radiographs (X-ray). Comparisons were conducted in trial 2 in contents of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in primary wing feathers, serum, radial and ulna between normal and twisted wings in White Roman geese at age of 14 wk. Zinc content in primary wing feathers was higher of normal wings than that of twisted wings (101 vs 84.5 μg/mL, P < 0.05). Fe content in radial was lower of normal wings than that of twisted wings (46.3 vs 60.3 μg/mL, P < 0.05). Progenies from parents with twisted wing(s) had higher IAW than those from parents with normal wings (40.6% vs 19.7% at 8 wk-old, 47.5% vs 29.4% at 14 wk-old; P < 0.01) in White Roman geese in trial 3. Female progenies had higher IAW than did males (42.9% vs. 28.8%, P < 0.05). Trial 4 was designed to investigate whether flock density, feeding regime and breed exerting certain effects on growth performance、IAW and serum concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in gosling during 3 to 6 wk-old. A 4 × 2 factorial design was used in which four flock densities (8, 12, 16 and 20 geese/pen of 12.3m2) and two feeding regimes, fed with starter (20% CP, 2,900 kcal ME/kg) during 0 to 3 wk (FR03) or 0 to 5 wk (FR05) followed with grower (15% CP, 3,000 kcal ME/kg ) thereafter.There were two replicates for each treatment. The results showed that the geese in FR05 had better feed efficiency than did those in FR03 (P < 0.05). Flock densities of 8 and 16 birds/pen had better feed efficiency than did those of 12 and 20 birds/pen (P < 0.01). The growth of primary wing feathers in flock densities of 8 and 12 birds/pen was faster than was those in flock densities of 16 and 20 birds/pen (P < 0.01), and was faster in FR05 than was in FR03 (P < 0.05). The overall average of IAW was 8.7%. There were no significant differences of IAW among the flock densities and between the feeding regimes. The IAW was higher in White Chinese goose (13.6%) than in White Roman goose (6.9%) (P< 0.05). There were no significant differences in contents of serum Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn between normal- and twisted-wing geese at ages of 5 and 7 wk. It may be concluded that twisted wing in geese may be attributable to the abnormalities of ligaments at carpal joint, may have higher content of Zn in primary wing feathers, and may have lower content of Fe in radial. Inheritance, breed and gender do contribute to IAW in White Roman geese. Flock density and feeding regime exert no effect on twisted wing incidence.
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