Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25492
標題: 飼糧添加未降解蛋白質及保護胺基酸對台灣地區荷蘭牛血液、瘤胃及生產性狀之影響
The Effects of Supplementation with Undegradable Intake Protein and Rumen Protected Amino Acid on Blood,
作者: 陳坤照
Chen, Kuen-Jaw
關鍵字: dairy cows
乳牛
undegradable intake protein
protected fat
rumen- protected methionine
未降解蛋白質
保護油脂
保護甲硫胺酸
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 因應高產乳牛營養需要,擬以熱擠壓大豆粕及血粉為未降解蛋白質來源,配合保護脂肪與胺基酸進行一系列之研究,探討對乳牛瘤胃、血液及產乳性狀之影響,得到下列結果: 試驗一以原位測定法(in situ)測定經熱擠壓處理的大豆粕(110℃、141 ℃),於瘤胃中培養不同時間點後蛋白質之降解率與蛋白質品質之變化;結果顯示,經141 ℃熱擠壓之大豆粕其粗蛋白質快速可溶部分減少,潛在可降解部分增加,其在瘤胃之降解速率減緩,並提高瘤胃中未降解蛋白質之比例。 試驗二探討使用保護油脂與141 ℃熱擠壓大豆粕,以提高能量及未降解蛋白質,來改善泌乳牛產乳性狀;結果顯示,不同飼糧處理雖然對於採食量、乳量、乳蛋白率、乳糖率及體增重皆無顯著影響,但添加保護油脂顯著提高乳脂產量、3.5﹪FCM及總固形物之產量。血液性狀顯示,添加熱擠壓大豆粕組顯著降低血液中尿素氮之濃度,添加保護油脂極顯著升高血液中膽固醇之濃度,並降低瘤胃之pH值。加熱擠壓大豆粕組之瘤胃氨態氮極顯著降低,但對瘤胃液之pH值及個別VFA之莫耳百分比於各組間皆無顯著差異。顯示以加熱擠壓大豆粕提供乳牛未降解蛋白質,雖無法改善產乳量,但會影響瘤胃蛋白質之分解速率,進而降低瘤胃液之氨態氮之濃度及血液中尿素氮濃度,而添加保護油脂可以提高乳脂肪及總固形物之產量。 試驗三評估熱季乳牛日糧中添加鋅螯合胺基酸(Zn-RPAA),對荷蘭乾乳牛瘤胃性狀之影響;試驗結果顯示,添加鋅螯合胺基酸對瘤胃液之pH值、氨態氮及總揮發性脂肪酸濃度無影響。個別揮發性脂肪酸中之乙酸莫耳百分比及乙酸/丙酸比,於添加鋅螯合甲硫胺酸(Zn-RPMet)及離胺酸(Zn-RPLys)組,顯著較其他三組為高;丙酸之莫耳百分比則以鋅螯合甲硫胺酸及離胺酸組顯著較其他組為低,丁酸與戊酸之莫耳百分比仍以對照 組及螯合甲硫胺酸組顯著高於含鋅螯合離胺酸組,對異丁酸及異戊酸則無顯著影響。故乳牛飼糧中同時添加鋅螯合甲硫胺酸及離胺酸,會增加瘤胃之乙酸莫耳百分比及乙酸/丙酸比。 試驗四探討熱擠壓處理的大豆粕與保護甲硫胺酸之調配,對泌乳牛之產乳性狀、血液性狀及對飼糧消化吸收之影響;試驗結果顯示,飼糧處理不影響牛乳產量、乳脂率、乳糖率、總固形物率及體增重。添加保護甲硫胺酸組,顯著提高採食量、乳蛋白率及3.5%FCM、乳蛋白、乳脂肪、乳糖和總固形物之產量。未降解蛋白質之添加有降低血液中尿素氮之趨勢。不同飼糧處理對瘤胃及總腸道之乾物質、粗蛋白質、有機質及酸洗纖維的表面消化率並無影響。保護甲硫胺酸雖然無法提高產乳量,但可以提高乳成分之產量。而加熱擠壓大豆粕對產乳性狀無影響,但會降低血中尿素氮。 試驗五探討添加血粉提高飼糧未降解蛋白質(UIP)與保護甲硫胺酸(RPMet)對泌乳牛之產乳性能、血液性狀之影響;結果顯示,飼糧處理不影響採食量、體增重、產乳量、乳脂率、乳糖率,也不影響血漿尿素氮及總膽固醇含量。添加RPMet與血粉組顯著提高牛乳蛋白率、固形物率、3.5﹪FCM、乳蛋白、乳脂肪、乳糖及乳固形物之產量。因此添加保護甲硫胺酸,雖無法提高產乳量,但可以增加乳蛋白等乳成分之總產量,而添加血粉以提高UIP並未能改善產乳性能。
Researches were conducted to evaluate the effect of applying undegradable protein(UDP) sources and protected fat, amino acids on the improvement of lactation performance of Holstein cows. In exp. 1, In situ measurement on the heat extruded soybean meal was worked and found that the solublility and rumen degradability were decreased. Nevertheless, the potential protein and the ratio of undegradable protein increased. In exp. 2 the heat extruded soybean meal(1410C) and protected fat were used to increased the energy content and undegradable protein for the lactating cows. There was no dietary effect on feed intake, milk yield and percentage of milk protein and lactose. However, the milk fat yield, 3.5% FCM and total solid yield were increased (P<0.05) when supplemented with protected fat. The concentration of blood urea nitrogen was lower (P<0.05) with the supplementation of heat extruded soybean meal. The concentration of blood cholesterol was higher (P<0.01) and the pH value in rumen extract was lower (P<0.01) when using protected fat. The concentration of ammonia nitrogen in the ruminal fluid was decreased (P<0.01) with the heat-extruded soybean meal, indicated that the nitrogen utilization was improved. In exp.3. the effect of dietary supplementation of Zn-RPMet and Zn-RPLys on ruminal characteristics were evaluated. Results showed that there was no effect on ruminal pH , ammonia nitriogen and total volatile fatty acid. The acetate molar percentage and acetate/ propionate ratio in Groups D (supplemented with Zn-RPMet and Zn-RPLys) were higher than other treatments (P<0.05). The propionate molar percentage in supplemented with Zn-RPMet and Zn-RPLys was lower (P<0.05). A higher butyrate and valerate molar percentage were obtained in Groups A (control) and B (Zn-RPMet) than Groups D (Zn-RPMet and Zn-RPLys) (P<0.05). However, the isobutyrate and isovalerate molar percentages in rumen fluid were not significantly different among the treatments. In exp.4, the effect of dietary supplementation of heat extruded soybean meal and protected methionine were evaluated. There was no dietary effect on milk yield, percentage of milk fat and milk lactose and total milk solids. The feed intake, percentage of milk protein, and 3.5% of FCM yield and milk protein, fat, lactose and total milk solid were higher (P < 0.05) in the diet added RPMet. There was no diet effect on digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, organic matter, acid detergent fiber when measured at ruminal or total duodenal tract. Although the feeding of protected methionine could not increase the milk yield, it could increase the milk compositions production. In exp. 5, the effect of blood meal and RPMet were evaluated. Results showed that there was no dietary effect on the feed intake, weight gain, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and lactose and the plasma urea nitrogen and cholesterol. The percentage of milk protein, milk solid and 3.5% of FCM yield, the production of milk protein, fat, lactose, and total milk solid were increased (P<0.05) in the cows fed diet added RPMet and blood meal. In the rumen fluid, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was lower (P<0.05) with the blood meal supplement , but no difference was found in VFA molar percentage among treatments. Although the feeding of rumen-protected methionine could not increase the milk yield, it increase the milk constituent production. The supplementation of blood meal to increase the UIP could not improve the milk production.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25492
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