Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25510
標題: 荷蘭牛與乳山羊於分娩前肌肉注射維生素E及硒對其分娩後乳液中體細胞數之影響
Effects of Preparturient Intramuscular Injection of Vitamin E and Selenium on Postparturient Milk Somatic Cell Counts in Holstein Cow and Dairy Goats
作者: 林依亭
Lin, I-Ting
關鍵字: Vitamin E
維生素E
Selenium
Somatic Cell Counts

體細胞數
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 維生素E(vitamin E)及硒(Se)一直是動物體內抗氧化系統的重要成員,可以保護多型核嗜中性球(Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, PMN)免受自由基的侵襲,進而增強生物之免疫能力。乳牛及乳山羊於乾乳末期至泌乳初期血漿中α-生殖醇(α-tocopherol)及硒濃度和全血中麩胱甘肽過氧化酶(glutathione peroxidase;GSHpx)活性會有下降之現象,造成動物體內抗氧化能力之下降,然此時期為乳房炎之好發期,因此常於分娩前施用維生素E及硒,藉此提升動物分娩前之抗氧化能力,達到降低乳房炎發生率之目的。本試驗於乳山羊及乳牛分娩前注射高劑量之維生素E及硒,藉以探討維生素E及硒之注射對乳山羊及乳牛之血漿、乳液中α-tocopherol及硒濃度、全血中GSHpx活性及分娩後第二週、四週乳液中體細胞數之影響,亦期望藉由測量乳液中鐵離子之濃度變化和體細胞數間之關係以瞭解這些參數與乳山羊及乳牛之乳腺健康之關係。試驗一以12頭乳山羊分成四組,於分娩前二週及前一週分別肌肉注射3,000 IU維生素E + 5 mg Na2SeO3 (E3000Se5組)、1,000 IU維生素E + 5 mg Na2SeO3 (E1000Se5組)、維生素E之溶劑Tween 80(TW組)與不注射之對照組(CONTROL組)。結果顯示經由E3000Se5及E1000Se5處理之乳山羊其血漿及乳液中之α-tocopherol可維持較高濃度,然E1000Se5組維持較高濃度之持續力不如E3000Se5者,且經由E3000Se5處理之羊隻在分娩時血漿中α-tocopherol濃度下降相對地不致於如此劇烈。經由維生素E及硒注射之羊隻血清中硒濃度於注射後顯著提升,且可維持分娩後血清中硒濃度不致遽然下降,同時亦可保持較高之乳液中硒濃度。經過E3000Se5及E1000Se5處理之羊隻分娩後全血中GSHpx活性有較未處理者高之現象。E1000Se5及TW組乳山羊分娩後第二週乳液中體細胞數顯著下降,而E3000Se5組則無此現象。各處理組乳山羊對於分娩後第四週乳液中體細胞數皆無顯著影響。乳山羊乳液及血液中鐵離子、乳鐵蛋白、運鐵蛋白和乳液中體細胞數間皆無顯著相關。試驗二以13頭乳牛分成三組,於分娩前二週及前一週分別肌肉注射3,000 IU維生素E + 50 mg Na2SeO3 (E3000Se50組)、Tween 80(TW組)與不注射之對照組(CONTROL組)。結果顯示經由維生素E及硒處理之乳牛可提升其注射後及分娩後之血漿、乳液中α-tocopherol濃度,且可降低分娩時血漿中α-tocopherol濃度劇烈下降之程度。乳牛血漿及乳液二者間之α-tocopherol濃度之相關係數為0.79(P<0.01)。而各處理組牛隻血清中硒濃度無顯著差異,且於分娩後其乳液中硒濃度及全血中GSHpx活性亦無顯著差異。各處理組牛隻於分娩後第二週(SCC1)及第四週(SCC2)乳液中體細胞數,以及因罹患乳房炎而需抗生素治療之牛隻比例皆無顯著差異。經由E3000Se50處理之牛隻產後胎衣滯留發生率達60%,且其血清中鎂離子之濃度較TW及CONTROL組者低。乳牛乳液及血液中鐵離子、乳鐵蛋白、運鐵蛋白和乳液體細胞數間無顯著相關。試驗結果顯示,乳山羊及乳牛於分娩前經由高劑量維生素E之注射(3,000 IU),可減緩分娩後一週內血漿中α-tocopherol濃度遽然下降之程度,而硒之注射可提升乳山羊全血中GSHpx之活性,於乳牛則無此效果;於分娩前注射維生素E與硒對降低乳牛、乳山羊乳液中體細胞數及增強乳腺健康等皆無顯著效果。
Vitamin E and selenium play an very important role in the antioxidative system on the biological membrane. They can protect polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from attacking by free radicals, and thereby strengthen the ability of immunity. Plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and selenium and whole blood GSHpx activity decrease during periparturient stage in dairy goats and dairy cows, and consequently the immune ability of these animals decreased. Incidence of mastitis increases during periparturient stage, farmers usually administer vitamin E and selenium to dairy cows and dairy goats to promote the antioxidation ability of these animals in prevention from the disease. In this experiment, high dosage of vitamin E and selenium were applied to dairy goats and dairy cows to elucidate the effects on the concentrations of α-tocopherol and selenium in blood plasma or milk, GSHpx activity in whole blood, and somatic cell counts (SCC) in milk at week 2 and 4 postparitum. Fe concentrations and SCC in milk were determined for understanding the relationships between these parameters and health status of mammary gland in the two species. In experiment 1, 12 dairy goats were randomly allotted into four treatments, e.g., intramuscular (im) injection of 3,000 IU vitamin E plus 5 mg Na2SeO3 (E3000Se5), im injection of 1,000 IU vitamin E plus 5 mg Na2SeO3 (E1000Se5), im injection of Tween 80 (TW: solvent for vitamin E) once per head at 2 weeks and 1 week, respectively, prior to parturition, or no injection (CONTROL). The goats in E3000Se5 or E1000Se5 had higher level of α-tocopherol in their blood plasma and milk. However, the high levels of α-tocopherol in the blood plasma and in the milk of E1000Se5 could not sustain as long as those of E3000Se5. Relatively speaking, blood plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol in E3000Se5 dropped not so abruptly as in other treatments. The goats injected with vitamin E and selenium were significantly increased of selenium concentrations in blood serum and milk. Whole blood GSHpx activities in E3000Se5 and E1000Se5 were higher than those in TW and CONTROL. SCC at week 2 postparitum in E1000Se5 and TW were significantly lower than those in E3000Se5 and Control. But SCC at week 4 postparitum was not significantly difference among the treatments. The correlations among Fe concentrations in blood serum and milk, lactoferrin, transferrin, and SCC were not significant. In experiment 2, 13 Holstein cows were randomly allotted into three treatments, e.g., im injection with 3,000 IU vitamin E plus 50 mg Na2SeO3 (E3000Se50), Tween 80 (TW) once per head at 2 weeks and 1 week prior to calving, respectively, or no injection (CONTROL). Blood plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol in E3000Se50 were significantly higher post injection and less extent in dropping of these levels at parturition. The correlation coefficient was 0.79 (P<0.01) between milk and plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol. There were no significant differences among the treatments in blood serum and milk concentrations of selenium, the whole blood GSHpx activity, and SCC at week 2 postparitum. The percentages of mastitis cured with antibiotics among the treatments were not significantly different. In E3000Se50, the incidence of retained fetal placenta was 60%, which might be resulted by the lowest level of Mg in the blood serum. The correlations among milk and blood serum concentrations of Fe, lactoferrin, transferrin, and SCC were not significant in the dairy cows. Comprehensively, the dairy goats and cows injected with vitamin E (3,000 IU) and selenium at preparturition could prevent abruptly decline of blood plasma α-tocopherol level at parturition, and could raise the whole blood GSHpx activity in the dairy goats. The efficacies of injecting vitamin E and selenium to dairy cows and goats for lowering SCC and enhancing health status in mammary gland were not apparent.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25510
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