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Effect of Intramuscular Injection of β-Carotene, Vitamin E and Selenium During Preparturition on Udder Health
somatic cell counts
|摘要:||本試驗之目的旨在探討於牛隻分娩前2-3週注射β-carotene、Vitamin E或硒，是否對分娩前後牛隻血液中β-carotene、α-tocopherol和硒濃度之維持、泌乳初期臨床性乳房炎的發生率、體細胞數及嗜中性球之噬菌能力有顯著影響，以期能利用此等營養素之施用，增強牛隻乳房之免疫功能，有效降低牛乳體細胞數、臨床性乳房炎的發生率，以減少酪農業者之經濟損失，而增進其收益。28頭荷蘭母牛於分娩前2-3週分成5組，4組投藥組各分別予以肌肉注射(1)β-carotene ( 1.5 mg/ 100 Kg of body weight) + Vitamin E (3,000 IU/ cow) + Sodium Selenite (50 mg/ cow, 含22.4 mg Se) （BCESE），內含佐劑Tween 80 和saseme oil量如TWSO、(2) Vitamin E (3,000 IU/ cow) + Sodium Selenite (50 mg/ cow)（ESE），內含佐劑Tween 80量如TW、(3) Tween 80 (4.4 g/ cow)（TW）、(4) Tween 80 (4.4 g/ cow) + sesame oil ( 3 mL / 100 Kg of body weight)（TWSO），或(5)控制組（CONTR）不予任何處理。於注射前，注射後1、4、7天和分娩後24小時內及分娩後第1、4、7天進行血液、乳液之β-carotene、α-tocopherol和硒濃度測定，分娩後1個月內進行產乳性狀、嗜中性球噬菌能力、臨床性乳房炎發生率之檢查。試驗結果顯示牛隻注射前血漿中β-carotene濃度皆在5μg/mL以上，注射後所測量到之平均血漿β-carotene濃度分別為：BCESE為5.59μg/mL，ESE組為5.09μg/mL，TW為4.77μg/mL，TWSO為5.70μg/mL，CONTR為5.74μg/mL。注射前後各處理組間平均血漿中β-carotene濃度並無顯著差異。分娩後各處理組血漿之平均β-carotene濃度分別為：BCESE為3.07μg/mL，ESE為3.24μg/mL，TW為2.90μg/mL，TWSO為3.30μg/m，CONTR為2.66μg/mL，分娩前後所有牛隻血漿中β-carotene濃度皆高於正常值（1.5μg/mL），表示所有受試牛於試驗期間β-carotene之攝食量均已充足。注射處理後BCESE和ESE之平均血漿中α-tocopherol濃度均顯著高於未注射Vitamin E之TW、TWSO和CONTR者（P<0.05）。分娩時未注射Vitamin E之TW、TWSO、CONTR之牛隻血漿中α-tocopherol濃度會迅速下降，顯示注射Vitamin E者可維持其血漿中α-tocopherol的濃度使之不至急遽下降，且其乳中α-tocopherol的濃度顯著高於未注射Vitamin E者（P<0.05）。試驗處理對牛隻血清及乳中硒之濃度、全血中Glutathione peroxidase活性並無顯著影響。BCESE和ESE牛隻分娩後第二週之生乳體細胞數，較低於TW、TWSO與CONTR者。但各試驗處理對牛隻分娩後嗜中性白血球吞噬大腸桿菌和金黃色葡萄球菌的能力、乳房炎的發生率及乳量並未有顯著差異存在。
The purposes of this study was to verify whether there would be effects of intramuscular injection of β-carotene, vitamin E, and selenium during 2-3 weeks preparturition on sustaining high blood levels of these nutrients, decreasing incidence of clinical mastitis and somatic cell counts (SCC), and increasing neutrophil phagocytosis during early lactation in Holstein cow. It was expected that the application of these nutrients would enhance the immune function in mammary glands of dairy cows and consequently declined the economic loss attributable to the udder problems. Twenty eight cows were randomly allotted into one of the five treatments, among them, four medicated groups had been respectively given intramuscular injection of : 1) 1.5 mg β-carotene per 100 Kg body weight plus 3,000 IU vitamin E and 50 mg sodium selenite (induding 22.4 mg Se) per head (BCESE), including the adjuvants, Tween80 and sesame oil (dosage as per TWSO), 2) 3,000 IU vitamin E and 50 mg sodium selenite per head (ESE), including the adjuvant, Tween80 (dosage as per TW), 3) 3 mL sesame oil (solvent forβ-carotene ) per 100 Kg body weight plus 4.4 g Tween 80 per head (TWSO), 4) 4.4 g Tween 80 per head (solvent for vitamin E; TW), or no injection (Control) during 2-3 weeks prior to calving. From the concentration test of β-carotene, α-tocopherol, selenium and glutathione peroxidase in blood or milk conducted on the first, fourth and seventh pre- and post-injection days, within postparturition 24 hours and the first, fourth and seventh days postparturition, in addition to the examination proceeded within one month postparturition on milk yield, neutrophilic bacteriophagology and incidence of clinical mastitis. At preinjection, the blood plasma β-carotene concentration in each of the 5 treatments was above 5 μg/mL. During postinjection, the blood plasma β-carotene concentration in BCESE, ESE, TW, TWSO, and CONTR were 5.59 μg/mL, 5.09μg/mL, 4.77 μg/mL, 5.70 μg/mL, and 5.74 μg/mL, respectively. There was no significant difference in the blood plasma β-carotene concentration between preinjection and postinjection in all the treatments. During postparturition, the blood plasma β-carotene concentration in BCESE, ESE, TW, TWSO, and CONTR were 3.07 μg/mL, 3.24 μg/mL, 2.90 μg/mL, 3.30 μg/mL, and 2.66 μg/mL, respectively. The blood plasma β-carotene concentration of the cows in all treatments was above normal level, 1.5 μg/mL, during periparturition indicating that these cows were sufficient in β-carotene nutritional status. The average of BCESE and ESE in postinjection blood plasma α-tocopherol concentration was greater (P<0.05) than those without injection of vitamin E. Blood plasma α-tocopherol concentration declines abruptly during parturition. Cows injected with vitamin E could prevent from rapid decrease of the nutrient concentration in blood and increase the nutrient concentration in milk (P<0.05). The treatments exerted no significant effect on selenium concentration in blood serum and milk, and glutathione peroxidase activity in whole blood. The SCC at week 2 postparturition in BCESE and ESE were less than those in TW, TWSO, and CONTR. However, there were no significant differences observed in neutrophil phagocytosis to Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus aureus, incidence of mastitis and milk yield of the cows. In conclusion, the efficacy of injecting β-carotene and selenium to cows during preparturition was not observed as expecting and the rationale for this might be attributable to the sufficient nutritional status of these nutrients in the cows under examined. Nevertheless, injection of vitamin E to cows during preparturition was effective in decreasing the severity of abruptly drop of α-tocopherol concentrations in blood and in milk right after calving.
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