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Study on Manufacturing and Properties of Jellyfish-like Pig Skin Strips
The pork with skin customarily sold by the butcher in Taiwan. But it is a waste that pig skins were always discarded by the consumers when cooking. The slaughtering numbers of hogs in Taiwan in 2001 were 8332070. The average weight of marketing hog was 111.83 kg. The yield per year of pig skin was about 37000 tons, based on 4% of live weight. Pig skin will become a good and new protein source due to a new study. Hence, this study was conducted to find the optimum condition to produce jellyfish-like pig skin strips depending upon the rheological properties. After removing fat and scraping hairs, pig skins were cut into strips (10cm X 0.3cm X 0.15cm). Pig skin strips were soaked at 80℃ Na2CO3 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0% or NaOH 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0% solutions, individually, for 1-5mins. Then flowing in cold water (4℃) for 10 minutes. The pig skin strips after dripping then measured the rheological properties including tensile strength, toughness, cohesiveness, frailty and chewiness to find the optimum condition for producing jellyfish-like pig skin strips. Moreover, the change of composition, swelling percentage, pH value and sensory panel test of jellyfish-like pig skin strips were evaluated in this research. The results were as follows: comparison of the composition of pig skin and jellyfish, moisture and ash of jellyfish were higher than those of pig skin. But crude protein and crude fat of pig skin were higher than those of jellyfish. The collagen content of jellyfish-like pig skin strips of this study was 23.75~24.23%. The pH value of jellyfish was 6.69. The tensile strength, toughness, cohesiveness, frailty and chewiness of jellyfish were 455.9g, 956.5g, 0.80, 950.5g and 621.7g, individually. The pH value of pig skin strips was 7.21~7.71. The tensile strength, toughness, cohesiveness, frailty and chewiness of pig skin strips were 686.8g, 1542.2g, 0.69, 1452.3g and 554.4g, separately. In the aspect of swelling percentage, jellyfish-like pig skin strips soaking in the same concentration of Na2CO3 solution, with the soaking time increasing, the swelling percentage increased significantly. However, with increasing of the concentration of Na2CO3, the swelling percentage tended to decrease. In the aspect of chemical composition, with the time and concentration of solution increasing, moisture and ash of jellyfish-like pig skin strips increased significantly. On the contrast, crude protein and crude fat of jellyfish-like pig skin strips decreased significantly. In the aspect of pH value, with the concentration of solution increasing, the pH value of jellyfish-like pig skin strips increased significantly (P<0.05). In the aspect of rheological properties, with the time and concentration of solution increasing, the tensile strength, toughness, cohesiveness, frailty and chewiness of jellyfish-like pig skin strips decreased significantly (P<0.05). In the treatment of NaOH, with the time increasing, the swelling percentage of all jellyfish-like pig skin strips were reduced except of the sample with 0.1% NaOH solution. In the aspect of chemical composition, the results of jellyfish-like pig skin strips with NaOH treatment were similar to with Na2CO3 treatment. Otherwise, the rheological properties of the samples with NaOH treatments were lower than those of Na2CO3 treatment. The conclusion based on the results of the rheological properties, the texture of jellyfish-like pig skin strips soaking in 0.1% Na2CO3 for 1, 2, 3 mins or 0.3% Na2CO3 for 1, 2 mins or 0.5 and 1.0% Na2CO3 for 1 min were similar to that of jellyfish and will be as raw material for the following sensory panel test. In the aspect of sensory panel test, the frailty, spice attraction, off-flavor and overall acceptance of jellyfish-like pig skin strips soaking in 0.1% Na2CO3 for 3 mins obtained the best score, and was similar to those of commercial spiced jellyfish.
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