Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25516
標題: 以豬皮仿製海蜇皮絲特性之研究
Study on Manufacturing and Properties of Jellyfish-like Pig Skin Strips
作者: 蔡恆嘉
Tsai, Heng-Chia
關鍵字: pig skin
豬皮
alkali treatment
rheological properties
chemical properties
jellyfish
鹼處理
物理特性
化學特性
海蜇皮
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 台灣豬肉通常連皮販售,然豬皮多被消費者丟棄,實屬可惜。台灣於2001年豬隻屠宰頭數為8,332,070頭,以平均重量為111.83㎏,若以豬皮佔活體重4﹪計算,則一年台灣豬皮產量為三萬七千多噸,若能加以利用,則豬皮可成為一良好之新蛋白質來源。因此,本研究之目的為依海蜇皮絲之物性加以探討豬皮仿製海蜇皮絲之最佳製備條件,冀能製造出與海蜇皮口感相似之產品,以增加豬皮利用之多樣化性。本試驗將豬皮去脂及去毛,切成長約10公分、寬0.3公分、厚0.15公分之豬皮絲,再分別以80℃,0.1、0.3、0.5、1.0%之NaOH或Na2CO3之1%食鹽水溶液中分別加熱1∼5分鐘後,取出於4℃冰水中浸泡10分鐘,瀝乾後即為豬皮仿海蜇皮絲。成品進行拉力、韌度、內聚性、脆度以及咀嚼性等物理特性分析,選出最相似之組別,再以官能品評找出最適合之豬皮仿海蜇皮絲之處理條件。另外,亦進行豬皮仿海蜇皮絲一般化學組成、膨潤率及pH值,浸泡溶液膠原蛋白溶出量與pH值之分析。 結果顯示:豬皮與海蜇皮之一般組成之比較:海蜇皮之水分含量和灰分均比豬皮高,而豬皮之粗蛋白質及粗脂肪含量則較海蜇皮高。豬皮中膠原蛋白佔粗蛋白質之74.60∼76.09%,因此本次試驗豬皮中所含膠原蛋白量約為23.75∼24.23%。海蜇皮之pH為6.69。海蜇皮之拉力為455.9g,韌度為956.5g,內聚性為0.80,脆度為950.5g,咀嚼性為621.7g。豬皮絲之pH值為7.21∼7.71。豬皮絲之拉力為686.8g,韌度為1542.2g,內聚性為0.69,脆度為1452.3g,咀嚼性為554.4g。若以同一濃度之碳酸鈉處理豬皮,隨著浸泡時間之增加,膨潤率亦有顯著增加之趨勢。但隨著濃度之增加,膨潤率則有下降之趨勢。一般化學組成中水分及灰分隨著浸泡時間及濃度之增加皆有顯著增加,但各組之粗蛋白質及粗脂肪含量皆有顯著下降之趨勢。各組樣品之pH值皆隨著濃度之增加,pH值有顯著增加之趨勢(p<0.05)。物性測定上,各處理組樣品之拉力、韌度、內聚性、脆度及咀嚼性亦隨著浸泡時間及濃度之增加皆有顯著下降之趨勢(p<0.05)。氫氧化鈉處理上,膨潤率除了0.1%組隨著浸泡時間之增加有增加之趨勢,其餘各組則有下降趨勢。一般化學組成則可發現皆有與碳酸鈉處理組相似之結果,而其物性之所有測定值皆比碳酸鈉處理者為差。綜合上述各種處理之豬皮仿海蜇皮絲樣品之物性分析結果則可發現與海蜇皮質地最為相似之組別,分別為碳酸鈉處理組0.1%浸泡1、2、3分鐘,0.3%浸泡1、2分鐘,0.5%及1.0%浸泡1分鐘等7組。將上述所得之七組豬皮仿海蜇皮絲作成涼拌產品進行品評。項目包括脆度、調味料吸附力、異味及總接受度,結果顯示出碳酸鈉0.1%浸泡3分鐘所製備豬皮仿海蜇皮絲之品評成績,能得到與海蜇皮最為相似之結果。
The pork with skin customarily sold by the butcher in Taiwan. But it is a waste that pig skins were always discarded by the consumers when cooking. The slaughtering numbers of hogs in Taiwan in 2001 were 8332070. The average weight of marketing hog was 111.83 kg. The yield per year of pig skin was about 37000 tons, based on 4% of live weight. Pig skin will become a good and new protein source due to a new study. Hence, this study was conducted to find the optimum condition to produce jellyfish-like pig skin strips depending upon the rheological properties. After removing fat and scraping hairs, pig skins were cut into strips (10cm X 0.3cm X 0.15cm). Pig skin strips were soaked at 80℃ Na2CO3 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0% or NaOH 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0% solutions, individually, for 1-5mins. Then flowing in cold water (4℃) for 10 minutes. The pig skin strips after dripping then measured the rheological properties including tensile strength, toughness, cohesiveness, frailty and chewiness to find the optimum condition for producing jellyfish-like pig skin strips. Moreover, the change of composition, swelling percentage, pH value and sensory panel test of jellyfish-like pig skin strips were evaluated in this research. The results were as follows: comparison of the composition of pig skin and jellyfish, moisture and ash of jellyfish were higher than those of pig skin. But crude protein and crude fat of pig skin were higher than those of jellyfish. The collagen content of jellyfish-like pig skin strips of this study was 23.75~24.23%. The pH value of jellyfish was 6.69. The tensile strength, toughness, cohesiveness, frailty and chewiness of jellyfish were 455.9g, 956.5g, 0.80, 950.5g and 621.7g, individually. The pH value of pig skin strips was 7.21~7.71. The tensile strength, toughness, cohesiveness, frailty and chewiness of pig skin strips were 686.8g, 1542.2g, 0.69, 1452.3g and 554.4g, separately. In the aspect of swelling percentage, jellyfish-like pig skin strips soaking in the same concentration of Na2CO3 solution, with the soaking time increasing, the swelling percentage increased significantly. However, with increasing of the concentration of Na2CO3, the swelling percentage tended to decrease. In the aspect of chemical composition, with the time and concentration of solution increasing, moisture and ash of jellyfish-like pig skin strips increased significantly. On the contrast, crude protein and crude fat of jellyfish-like pig skin strips decreased significantly. In the aspect of pH value, with the concentration of solution increasing, the pH value of jellyfish-like pig skin strips increased significantly (P<0.05). In the aspect of rheological properties, with the time and concentration of solution increasing, the tensile strength, toughness, cohesiveness, frailty and chewiness of jellyfish-like pig skin strips decreased significantly (P<0.05). In the treatment of NaOH, with the time increasing, the swelling percentage of all jellyfish-like pig skin strips were reduced except of the sample with 0.1% NaOH solution. In the aspect of chemical composition, the results of jellyfish-like pig skin strips with NaOH treatment were similar to with Na2CO3 treatment. Otherwise, the rheological properties of the samples with NaOH treatments were lower than those of Na2CO3 treatment. The conclusion based on the results of the rheological properties, the texture of jellyfish-like pig skin strips soaking in 0.1% Na2CO3 for 1, 2, 3 mins or 0.3% Na2CO3 for 1, 2 mins or 0.5 and 1.0% Na2CO3 for 1 min were similar to that of jellyfish and will be as raw material for the following sensory panel test. In the aspect of sensory panel test, the frailty, spice attraction, off-flavor and overall acceptance of jellyfish-like pig skin strips soaking in 0.1% Na2CO3 for 3 mins obtained the best score, and was similar to those of commercial spiced jellyfish.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25516
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