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Effects of different binders on the quality of chicken liver sausage
corn syrup solids
whey protein concentrate
soy protein isolate
chicken liver sausage
添加四種結著劑可使產品有較高之水分含量及較低之粗脂肪含量。各處理組之雞肝香腸含有膽固醇292.60 ~ 340.31mg/100 g、血質鐵2.37 ~ 3.20mg/100g及非血質鐵3.30~3.97mg/100g。
各組雞肝香腸在冷藏(4℃)儲存期間，總生菌數及厭氧菌數皆隨儲存期間的增加而逐漸增加，於第28天時產品的總生菌數及厭氧菌數皆在6 log CFU/g以下，但開始有不良風味產生。產品的pH值則於儲存期間隨著時間之增加而逐漸降低而二-硫酸巴比妥酸(TBA)值則呈現起伏不穩定的現象。各組之揮發性鹽基態氮(VBN)值亦皆隨儲存時間的增加而增加，其最終的VBN值為34.37~38.63 mg %；各組產品的亞硝酸根殘留量由第0天之41.73~48.37ppm逐漸降低至第28天的22.95~27.19ppm。在產品色澤方面，L值及b值有隨儲存天數的增加而增加之趨勢，而a 值則沒有顯著之變化。各組產品之凝膠強度在4℃儲存28天後其測定值皆較第0天者高。在感官品評方面，各組產品之色澤評分於儲存第7天後逐漸降低，且可發現添加1.0%單離大豆蛋白處理組於儲存21天後各項品評分數皆顯著地比其他處理組低。
The main purpose of this study was to investigate effects of four food binders─carrageenan(carr), corn syrup solids(CSS), whey protein concentrate(WPC), and soy protein isolate(SPI),on the quality of smoked-cooked chicken liver sausage. At first, dependind on the results of evaluation of the cooking loss, rheological properties, and sensory panel scores of chicken liver sausage products with these four binders by different levels, we tried to seekout a suitable level for products. Then, liver sausages were made with these four binders by a suitable level, respectively, and stored at the temperatures of 4℃ and -20℃ for understanding the changes of quality and optimum shelf life of the products during storage. The results were as followings: in rheological properties, a level of 0.2, 0.5, 0.8% carr, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% CSS, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% WPC, and 1.0, 2.0, 3.0% SPI were added with chicken liver sausage, respectively, can improve the gel strength and breaking strength. The improved effeciency of WPC and SPI on the rheological properties of liver sausage were more remarkable than the others, while CSS had the least effect. In sensory properties, the addition of SPI reduced the flavor and overall acceptance of the products, and the overall acceptance scores of products decreased by the increasing levels of four binders. The suitable level of these four binders were carr 0.2%, CSS 1.0%, WPC 1.0%, and SPI 1.0%, individually, in this study depending on the sensory properties, binding ability and slicing. The higher moisture and lower fat contents were found in chicken liver sausages with these four binders. The total cholesterol, heme iron, and non-heme iron contents of all samples were 292.60~340.31 mg/100g, 2.37~3.20 mg/100g, and 3.30~3.97 mg/100g, respectively. During cold storage at 4℃, the total plate counts(TPC) and anaerobic plate counts(APC) of all samples increased with storage time increasing. At the 28th day, the TPC and APC of all samples were lower than 6 log CFU/g, but a off-flavor be smelled. The pH values of all samples decreased gradually with storage time increasing, while the TBA(2-thiobarbituric acid) values were unstable during storage. The VBN(volatile basic nitrogen) values of all samples increased with storage time increasing. At the end of storage, the VBN values of products were 34.37~38.63 mg %. The nitrite residues of all samples were 41.73~48.37 ppm at the initial and down to 22.95~27.19 ppm at the 28th day. In the color of products, the L-value and b-value of all samples increased with storage time increasing, but no differences for a-value were observed during storage. The gel strength of all samples at the 28th day were higher than at the 0 day's. In sensory properties, the color scores of all samples decreased gradually after the 7th day during storage. At the 21th day, the product of SPI treatment had significantly lowest panel scores among all treatments. During frozen storage at -20℃, the TPC and APC of all samples decreased gradually with storage time. The TBA and VBN values of all samples maintained stable during storage. At the 90th day, the nitrite residues of all samples were 35.56~38.35 ppm. The L-value and b-value decreased while a-value increased at the end of storage. The gel strength of all samples increased singnificantly at the 90th day. No differences were found in sensory properties of all samples during frozen storage. In conclusion, chicken liver sausage products with 0.2% carrageenan, 1.0% corn syrup solids,1.0% whey protein concentrate and 1.0% soy protein isolate, respectively, had the shelf life of 28 days during cold storage at 4℃ and at least 3 months during frozen storage at -20℃.
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