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標題: 豬肝之微生物營養強化劑之製備與豬肝渣在豬肝羅扶製造上之應用
Manufacture of Microbial Nutrient Enrichment from Pork Liver and Application of Pork Liver Draff on Pork Liver Loaves
作者: 洪嘉祥
Horng, Chia-Shang
關鍵字: Pork Liver
Pork Liver Extraction
Microbial Nutrinent Enrichment
Staphylococcus aureus
Pork Liver Loaves
Pork Liver Draff
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 本研究分為兩個部分,第一試驗為利用豬肝試製微生物生長所需的營養強化劑,以提高豬肝的利用價值。第二試驗即是將試驗一剩下之豬肝渣添加入豬肝羅扶以增加其利用性。 由試驗結果得知,豬肝抽出物之產率以冷凍乾燥方式處理者最高,其次為一般乾燥方式處理者,噴霧乾燥方式處理者之產率最低。以噴霧乾燥和冷凍乾燥方式處理之豬肝抽出物其溶解度較一般乾燥方式處理者佳,且與商業產品-牛肝抽出物(Difco)之溶解度相似,且作為培養添加劑來培養Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538,其效果亦與商業產品-牛肝抽出物(Difco)相似。以豬肝渣取代新鮮豬肝來製作豬肝羅扶時,豬肝羅扶之蛋白質含量會隨豬肝渣取代量的增加而增加,但灰分含量、製成率和乳化安定性則隨豬肝渣取代量的增加而下降。以豬肝渣取代新鮮豬肝會增加豬肝羅扶之凝膠強度和破斷強度但對凝膠硬度則沒有一致性的影響,貯存期間各組之凝膠強度和破斷強度維持穩定。色澤方面,以豬肝渣取代新鮮豬肝會增加豬肝羅扶之L值和b值,但a值會下降。以豬肝渣取代新鮮豬肝對豬肝羅扶之pH及VBN值影響不大,但TBA值會降低,於貯存期間各組之pH、VBN和TBA值皆變化不大。各組豬肝羅扶之總生菌數會隨貯存時間之增加而增加。官能品評方面,色澤、質地、風味、口感和總接受性之品評成績皆隨豬肝渣取代量和貯存時間之增加而下降。總結,豬肝渣取代量少於33%時,較能被品評人員接受。
Pork liver is a kind of rich-nutrient food which contains abound of Vit A, B group, Fe and P. In recent years, Pork liver was not so popular because of the residues of antibiotics and sulfamines in them. Thereby in this study, the first purpose was to produce a nutrient enrichment from pork liver for microorganisms and increase the utility of pork liver. Besides, a number of pork liver draff will be produced after preparing pork liver extraction and those contain rich proteins. It will be a great pity to throw them away, therefore, the second purpose of the experiment was to apply pork liver draff to liver loaves production in order to increase the utility of pork liver draff. Results showed that the yield of pork liver extracts was the highest when dried by frozen drying, and the second higher was by using oven drying and the lowest was by using spray drying. The solubility of pork liver extracts by spray and frozen drying were significantly better than ovenl drying, and the solubility of the two were similar to commercial product-beef liver extracts (Difco). As a nutrient enrichment in medium for incubating Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6583, the growth condition of microorganism with pork liver extracts by spray and frozen drying were similar to that of commercial product-beef liver extracts (Difco). When manufacturing pork liver loaves by using pork draff to replace fresh pork liver, the crude protein content of pork loaves increased but ash content, yield and emulsion stability decreased with the replacing level of pork liver draff increasing. Gel strength and breaking intension of pork liver loaves increased and maintained stable during storage at 4℃, but a positive effect on gel hardness was not found in this study. In aspect of color, L and b value increased but a value decreased with replacing level of pork liver draff. Otherwise, replacing levels of pork liver draff were not markedly influenced on the pH and VBN value of the products. The TBA value of the products decreased, and maintained stable during storage at 4℃. The total plate count of all products increased with storage time. In sensory properties, the scores of color, texture, flavor, mouth feeling and over acceptable decreased while the replacing level of pork liver draff and storage time increased. In conclusion, a suitable replacing level of pork liver draff was 33% in this experiment.
Appears in Collections:動物科學系



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