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標題: 添加Staphylococcus xylosus及Micrococcus varians對香肚品質之影響
Effect of Staphylococcus xylosus and Micrococcus varians on the Quality of Shang-Do
作者: 王理書
Wang, Li-Shu
關鍵字: Fermented sausage
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 中文摘要 香肚是中國富有盛名且受歡迎的肉製品,其外觀似鮮紅之蘋果,產品之特性類似歐美的發酵香腸,不過其需經蒸煮方可食用。細球菌是一種經常被應用於發酵肉製品中的菌元,其添加主要的目的為其可改善產品之色澤,且因觸作用而可抑制產品氧化酸敗。為瞭解菌元對於香肚品質之影響,本試驗於原料肉中分別添加Staphylococcus xylosus (CCRC12930)及Micrococcus varians (CCRC12272),而後填充入豬膀胱中,再經4℃乾醃24小時後,以50-55℃乾燥8小時,此時產品再移入熟成室中進行熟成,熟成期間進行微生物相、pH值、水活性、食鹽含量及色澤的測定,同時分析香肚於熟成期間游離脂肪酸、游離胺基酸之變化,另外,亦進行香肚成品揮發性風味成分之分析。 結果顯示:熟成期間各組香肚之pH值隨熟成之進行逐漸升高,顯示本試驗所用的細球菌並沒有產酸之情形。水活性方面,熟成期間各組香肚之水活性則隨熟成之進行而逐漸降低,熟成至第2週時,香肚中心及外圍之水活性已達一平衡狀態,且隨熟成之進行而逐漸降低。食鹽含量方面,熟成期間各組香肚之食鹽含量隨著熟成之進行逐漸增加,各組香肚經乾醃後,食鹽含量顯著升高(P<0.05),且香肚周圍之食鹽含量較香肚中心者高。 微生物品質方面,各組香肚經乾燥處理後,細球菌數顯著下降(P<0.05),而後隨著熟成之進行,各組香肚之細球菌菌數輕微下降,最後維持在一穩定狀態,熟成至2個月時,接種S.xylosus之香肚其細球菌菌數較接種M.varians者高。在總生菌菌數方面,其變化與細球菌菌數之變化有相同之情形,熟成期間各組香肚之總生菌菌數較細球菌菌數稍高。在真菌菌數方面,各組香肚之真菌菌數隨著熟成之進行逐漸降低,熟成至2個月時,已無法測得真菌之存在。 游離胺基酸之含量方面,香肚經2個月熟成後,除接種M.varians之組別外,其餘個組香肚之總游離胺基酸均增加,且添加不同菌元之香肚其所產生之游離胺基酸圖譜亦不同。 脂肪酸含量變化方面,香肚經2個月熟成後,各處理組之脂肪酸組成其含量排列依序為:C18:1>C18:2>C16:0>C18:0,且熟成後個別脂肪酸之含量並無明顯之變化。個別游離脂肪酸含量方面,各處理組香肚經2個月熟成後,其個別游離脂肪酸含量之排列順序為:C18:1>C16:0>C18:2>C18:0,且熟成後各組香肚之C18:1、C16:0及總游離脂肪酸之含量減少。滴定游離脂肪酸之含量方面,各處理組經乾燥處理後,滴定游離脂肪酸含量上升,而後隨著熟成之進行,滴定游離脂肪酸含量逐漸降低。 香肚經2個月熟成後,各處理組之揮發性風味成分中,由香辛料而來約佔50 % 以上,而由脂肪氧化而來的揮發性成分則佔18.4-20.6 % 之間。
英文摘要 Effect of Staphylococcus xylosus and Micrococcus varians on the Quality of Shang-Do Li-Shu Wang Summary Shang-Do is a popular and well-known meat product in China. It is fermented by natural microorganism and belongs to a type of semi-drys fermented products. It looks like red apple and its properties like salami type-pepperoni, but it must be cooked before eating. Micrococcaceae are used in fermented meat for enhancing the color stability and preventing rancidity of the fermented meat by reducing peroxide formation via a catalase system. In this study, Shang-Do was made of 80﹪pork ham and 20﹪ pork lard as well as inoculated with Micrococcus varians(CCRC12272), Staphylococcus xylosus(CCRC12930) and mixture of the two starters, individually, then stuffed into the bladder, dried curing at 4℃ for 24h, and finally dried at 50-55℃ for 8h. The products then ripening stages were performed at 15℃ for 8 weeks The pH, water activity, salt content, color, the quality of microbiology, free fatty acids, fatty acid composition were determined during ripening. After ripened for 8 weeks, the volatile compounds of Shang-Do were determined. The results were shown as follows:during the ripening period, pH value of all treaments increased with ripening time. The water activity of Shang-Do of the edge and the center reached equilibrium at the 2nd week and that of all treaments decreased with ripening time. In salt content, all treaments increased with the ripening time. After drying, the salt content of all treaments significantly increased (P<0.05) and that of Shang-Do of the edge was higher than the center one. At the 3rd week, the salt content of Shang-Do of the center was higher than the edge one. In the quality of microbiology, the counts of all treatments significantly reduced (P<0.05) after drying, then decreased slightly with ripening time and kept a stable state at the finial stage. At the 8th week, Shang-Do with S. xylosus had higher Micrococcaceae counts than that of Shang-Do with M. varians. The fungi counts of Shang-Do was lass than 4 log CFU/g at the initial stage and then reduced with ripening time. At the final stage(8th week), there were no fungi existing in Shang-Do. It might be that most fungi grew only on the surface of fermented meat products. Except Shang-Do with M. varians, the amounts of total free amino acids of the other treatments increased at the final stage(8th week), when compared with those at the initial stage. The free amino acid patterns of all treatments were varied with starter cultures. At the 8th week for ripening , the amounts of fatty acids of Shang-Do in order with C18:1>C18:2>C16:0>C18:0. To compare the amounts of fatty acids of the initial sample with those of the finial product, there was no significant change. The amounts of free fetty acids at the finial product were in order with C18:1>C16:0>C18:2>C18:0. At the finial stage, the amounts of C18:1、C16:0 and total free fatty acids reduced of the products were reduced in this study of Shang-Do. There are nearly 40 volatile compounds being identified. The results indicated that above 50% of volatile compounds of Shang-Do came from spices, 18.4-20.6 % from lipid oxidation and 0.9-1.4 % from amino acids catabolism.
Appears in Collections:動物科學系



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