Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25555
標題: 脫殼大麥飼糧添加β-聚葡萄糖對肉雞生長性狀之影響
Effect of dehulled barley diet with β-glucanase supplement on performance of growth and characters of digestive tract of broiler
作者: 孫玉玫
Sun, Yei-Mei
關鍵字: β-glucanase
β-聚葡萄糖
broiler
growth performance
dehulled barly
肉雞
生長性能
脫殼大麥
出版社: 畜產學系
摘要: 本試驗目的,以脫殼大麥取代傳統肉雞飼糧中的玉米,添加β-聚葡萄糖(β-glucanase)後探討對肉雞生長性能、消化率、腸道性狀之影響。試驗一以480隻公母各半之愛拔益加種(Arbor Acres)肉雞逢機分配至24欄,在等能量、等蛋白的情況下,以玉米-大豆粕為對照組飼糧,以脫殼大麥取代玉米用量之40及80%,及有無添加β-聚葡萄糖(用量為飼料量之0.1%)之3×2複因子設計。試驗二以640隻公母各半之愛拔益加種肉雞,逢機分配至32欄,亦是以試驗一之玉米-大豆粕組為對照組飼糧,在不考慮等能量、等蛋白之情況下,以脫殼大麥直接取代玉米用量之50及100%,另一組為與對照組等能量等蛋白之脫殼大麥取代80%之飼糧,再配合有無添加酵素之4×2複因子設計,試驗一與試驗二均進行生長及腸道性狀與消化率試驗。結果顯示,在生長性狀及食糜黏度方面,試驗一中,當脫殼大麥取代量愈高,因雞隻採食量顯著增加,生長期之體重顯著高於對照組(P<0.05),且肥育期之體重及體增重亦明顯高於對照組(P<0.05),但在飼料轉換率方面均無顯著差異。因試驗一之飼糧營養成分已達雞隻之需求標準,故添加酵素並無顯著改善之效果。在試驗二中,因脫殼大麥處理與酵素添加間有交互作用存在,添加酵素後僅顯著改善以脫殼大麥直接取代玉米50%或100%之處理組之生長期及肥育期雞隻之體增重(P<0.05)。於二個試驗,脫殼大麥取代量越高,食糜黏度隨之增加,肥育期之嗉囊、迴腸、盲腸及結直腸之相對重量均有明顯地增加(P<0.05),而添加酵素後,對脫殼大麥直接取代玉米之處理組之食糜黏度均有顯著降低之效果,對消化道各部位之相對重量具有降低之趨勢或達顯著之效果。在等能量、等蛋白之情況下,以脫殼大麥取代玉米80%之處理組,因飼糧中所添加之油脂含量較多,且採食量較高,其腹脂含量均明顯高於其他處理組(P<0.05)。在雞隻營養分消化率及腸道消化酵素方面,脫殼大麥處理對生長期雞隻十二指腸澱粉及空腸脂肪,與肥育期之十二指腸蛋白與空腸澱粉活性均有影響之趨勢(P<0.1),酵素的添加並無影響。不論有無考慮等營養之含量,以脫殼大麥取代玉米均顯著降低生長期雞隻之乾物質與脂肪消化率,而添加酵素後可明顯提高脫殼大麥取代50%或直接取代100%組之脂肪消化率(P<0.05)。對揮發性脂肪酸比例及含量之影響,因脫殼大麥為可溶性纖維,易被盲腸內微生物發酵利用,產生大量之揮發性脂肪酸,可作為腸道上皮細胞增生所需之能量來源,顯著提高試驗二之生長期雞隻十二指腸絨毛長度、腺窩深度、絨毛面積及周長,空腸腺窩及肌肉層厚度亦明顯增加(P<0.05),添加酵素後可顯著增加空腸絨毛長度及面積(P<0.05),以增加營養份之吸收。不論生長期或肥育期,以脫殼大麥取代玉米組之肌肉層厚度均明顯高於對照組(P<0.05),可能與可溶性纖維滯留時間較長,增加腸道蠕動能力有關。綜合以上結果顯示,於等能量、等蛋白之考慮下,脫殼大麥取代量愈高,因增加雞隻飼料採食量,而改善肉雞生長性狀,添加酵素並無改善之效果。如以脫殼大麥直接取代玉米時,經添加酵素後,可改善雞隻食糜黏度,顯著提高雞隻乾物質及脂肪消化率,因此改善雞隻之增重。不論是否於等能量、等蛋白之條件下,以脫殼大麥取代玉米時,對雞隻腸道相對重量、黏膜組織及盲腸發酵均造成影響。
The purpose of this study was conducted to determine the effects of dehulled barley substituting for corn in the traditional ration and supplement β-glucanase on growth performance, digestibility, and characteristics of intestine in broilers. In trial 1, a group of 480 male and female broilers(Arbor Acers)was randomly divided 24 pens. A corn-soybean meal diet was the control diet, with dehulled barley substituting for 40% and 80% in isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diet and with or without β-glucanase supplement(0.1% of diet) in a 3×2 factorial design. In trial 2, a group of 640 male and female broilers(Arbor Acers)was randomly divided 32 pens. A corn-soybean meal diet in trial 1 was also as the control diet, dehulled barley substituting for 50% and 100% of corn. Another treatment was substituting for 80% dehulled barley in isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diet and with or without β-glucanase supplement (0.1% of diet) in a 4×2 factorial design. The result showed that, in growth performance and digesta viscosity aspects, as the amount of dehulled barley substituting for corn increased, the body weight of the broiler during growth period increases significantly higher than the control because of higher feed intake in trial 1(P<0.05), and so do the body weight and the body weight gain during the finishing period (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference in the feed conversion; this might be the diet in trial 1 has reached the nutritional requirement of broilers, so the enzyme supplement doesn''t show significant effects. In trial 2, because of the interaction between dehulled barley treatment and enzyme supplementation, enzyme supplement only significantly improved the body weight gain of growth and finish period which directly substitute dehulled barley with 50% or 100% of corn (P<0.05). In two trails, the higher of dehulled barley substituting for corn, digesta viscosity of the duodenum increased, the higher relative weight of crop, ileum, caecum, and colon (P<0.05); after enzyme supplement, digesta viscosity of barley directly substituting for corn decreased significantly. Dehulled barley substituting for 80% corn in the isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diet has higher abdominal fat than other groups (P<0.05), because the higher feed intake of higher oil amount. In the nutrient digestibility and intestinal enzyme activity, there was no significantly effect by dehulled barley directly substituting for corn, but decreased the activities of α-amylase in duodenum and lipase in jejunum during the growth period, the activities of protease in the duodenum andα-amylase in the jejunum (P<0.1). No matter in the isonutritional diet, dehulled barley substituting for corn decreased significantly dry matter and fat digestibilities(P<0.05), enzyme supplement has significantly increased fat digestibility of barley substituting for 50% or for 100% corn diet(P<0.05). The soluble fiber in dehulled barley was easily used and fermented by microbes of caecum. In the trail 2, the short-chain fatty acid was the energy source of intestinal cell proliferation, the villus height, crypt depth, villus area and villus perimeter of the duodenum and the crypt depth and muscle layer of the jejunum were increased significantly(P<0.05), enzyme supplementation increased significantly(P<0.05) the villus height and villus area of the jejunum, it would increase absorption of the nutrient. No matter growing period or finishing period, the muscle layer of the dehulled barley treatment increased significantly(P<0.05), the retention time of the soluble fiber was longer, it increased the capacity of the intestinal peristalsis. To summarize, dehulled barley substituting for higher corn in the isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diet, the feed intake of broiler increased to improve growth performance of the broiler, and no effect on enzyme supplement. But dehulled barley directly substituting for corn and enzyme supplementation has lower digesta viscosity, and improved significantly the dry matter and fat digestibility of the broiler, and improved the weight gain of broilers. No matter in the isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diet, if dehulled barley directly substituting for corn, it would effect on relative weight of intestine, mucosa tissue and the fermentation of caecum.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/25555
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