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標題: 利用繞道迷宮試驗探討地方雞種對陌生環境之適應能力
Using the detour maze to study the adaptation ability of local chicken in novel environments
作者: 陳信雄
Chen, Hsin-Hsiung
關鍵字: 繞道迷宮
detour maze
adaptation ability
local chicken
novel environments
出版社: 動物科學系所
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摘要: 隨著人們對動物福祉意識的抬頭,傳統動物飼養管理方法已經為人所詬病。但是將已經長期選拔生產性狀的雞隻再度回歸到豐富化的放牧環境中,卻帶來了環境適應的問題。長期的選拔特定性狀的結果卻也降低了某些行為的表現能力。像是比起保種品系,選拔生產性狀的育種品系活動較低,也比較怕人。因此選擇生長較慢但肉質較白肉雞佳,並且也能適應開闊飼養環境的地方雞種做為飼養對象,可能是改善目前雞隻飼養福祉的較佳辦法。 然而地方雞種彼此間也存在著差異,因此本試驗使用中興大學目前所保存種原的六種土雞:花東、信義、竹崎、金門、名古屋、石岐,來試驗雞種間的環境適應能力。本試驗利用繞道迷宮試驗為主,回憶試驗、進階繞道迷宮試驗為輔,檢測雞隻面對新環境時的害怕與適應,進而討論地方雞種之放牧潛力。 繞道迷宮試驗為一開放空間區域放入兩個圍籬作分隔,雞隻必須從中探索環境並找尋食物,試驗期間記錄相關行為以評估對環境之適應能力。回憶試驗則是在四週後再重複迷宮繞道試驗檢測雞隻是否有退步之情況。進階繞道迷宮試驗則是將繞道迷宮試驗之難度增加,用以檢測雞隻空間記憶能力以探討適應能力。 結果顯示,六種品系的雞種中,探索區域表現較佳的為信義。探索必須在害怕降到一定程度時才會發生,表現較佳之雞隻同時也代表對環境害怕程度較低。到達食物所在區的抵達時間為信義較快,代表信義對環境的熟悉度較其他雞隻為高。移動潛在時間為信義所花的時間較短,時間越短表示雞隻對環境較不害怕。步伐數為花東、信義較多,代表他們對環境的害怕程度較低。鳴叫潛在時間較短與鳴叫次數較多的則是信義、竹崎、石岐,配合移動潛在時間、步伐數的結果,顯示信義與竹崎會有此種表現為對環境的害怕程度較低,而石岐則是尋求社會恢復的動機較強烈所致。綜合上述結果,對環境適應能力較好的為信義、竹崎、花東,而石岐則較差,金門與名古屋則介於中間。儘管六種品系對陌生環境的適應能力有差異,但基本上都是隨著試驗回合的增加而改變。 回憶試驗方面,雞隻在四週後再進到相同試驗環境時,對環境的害怕程度差異不大,但是對環境設備位置之記憶會稍微遺忘,但只需要稍加適應即可恢復原本之水平。 在進階繞道迷宮試驗方面,若將雞隻已熟悉之環境稍加改動環境配置,則會使雞隻表現受影響,若此環境又無法讓雞隻持續的接觸,則一段時間後此環境對雞隻來說會成為一個更不熟悉的環境。
As the concept of animal welfare has been gradually rooted in people, traditional animal feeding and management methods are seen to be inappropriate and out of date. However, those chickens which are long-term selected for production traits also have adaption problems as they are again brought back to free range. Moreover, the long-term selection for the production traits also causes reductions of performance in some behaviors. For example, compared to conserved chickens, chickens selected for production may more easily feel afraid of human and not active. Therefore, local chickens, which grow more slowly, taste better, and are more adaptable to the enriched environment than the broilers, would be better candidates for raising in order to solve animal welfare problems at present. Yet, local chickens from different origins are also found to be different in some behaviors. In order to test the performance of adaption to environment among different breeds of chickens, 6 breeds of local chickens, i.e., Hua-Tun, Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi, Quemoy, Nagoya, and Shek-Ki, were compared. Besides, by detour maze, reminiscent test and advanced detour maze, the fear that a chicken feel and its performance when it is brought to a new environment were studied to further evaluate their potential to adapt free-ranged environment. Detour maze is an open-field with two wire-net fences. Objects have to explore and find the food in the apparatus. The performance of their behavior would be recorded during the test. The reminiscent test is the same as the detour maze but is performed 4 weeks after the detour maze in order to test whether the chickens retrogress or not. The advanced detour maze is similar to the detour maze but with more difficulties. The test is designed to test the chickens’ spacial memory and the ability of adaption. The result showed that among all breeds, Hsin-Yi has the best performance in area exploring ability, which, in general speaking, appears when chickens are at lower fear level. That is, chickens that perform better in this stage are considered to have less fear of environment. In terms of testing duration, it was also Hsin-Yi that spent the shortest time reaching to the assigned location, which means the breed gets acquainted with the environment faster than others. Furthermore, Hsin-Yi has shorter latency of moving, and is considered to have a lower level of fear of environment. Likewise, Hsin-Yi and Hua-Tung are also considered to have a lower level of fear of environment for they have more numbers of steps when reaching to the foods. Hsin-Yi, Ju-Chi and Shek-Ki all have the shorter latency of vocalizing and higher frequency of vocalizations. Taking previous results, latency of moving and numbers of steps into consideration, one can conclude that Hsin-Yi and Ju-Chi have lower level of fear of the environment and Shek-Ki has more motives for searching companions. In conclusion, Hsin-Yi, Hua-Tung, and Ju-Chi performed a higher ability of adaption to new environments, while Shek-Ki performed worse in the detour maze than all the other breeds, and Quemoy and Nagoya are in the middle. In spite of the differences of adaption ability among the 6 breeds, their performance changed as the frequency of trial went up. As for the reminiscent test, when the chickens came back to the same trial again after four weeks, there were no significant differences in their fear of environments compared with the last trial. Moreover, at first the chickens lost a bit of memory for the position of the equipments they met last time, but got acquainted as their memory was recovered. In advanced detour maze, their performance would be affected after we made a little change in the environment that the chickens have known well. What’s more, if we let the chickens not to stay in the changed environment, the environment will become much more unfamiliar to the chickens in a period of time.
其他識別: U0005-0908201222100200
Appears in Collections:動物科學系



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