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標題: 新型滾翼直昇機之研發
R&D of Novel Revolving-Wing Helicopter
作者: 蕭孟佳
Hsiao, M.J.
關鍵字: VTOL
commuter aircraft
personal aircraft
出版社: 機械工程學系
摘要: 近半世紀以來,眾多工程師戮力於垂直起降飛行器的開發,發展出眾多取得升力的概念;然而除了尚在研發的X-32及X-35外,僅有Harrier、Forger及Osprey三種機型臻至成熟實用。現今投入垂直起降領域的團隊愈來愈多,Skycar、Xantus、SoloTrek XFV、Hawk 4、CarterCopter及BA609等新開發的機種,都有希望成為未來炫目的光彩。 然而,憑著旋翼優越的升力特性,直昇機成為目前普遍使用的垂直起降飛行器;但其直徑動輒超過7、8甚至超過30公尺的旋翼,也造成高碰撞風險及無法隨處降落的缺點。在大樓林立的都會中,除了飽受強陣風威脅的大樓頂層外,難以找到直昇機的棲身之所,大幅地減弱了直昇機應有的機動性。 為追求真正的城市交通機,本研究開發出世界首創滾翼形態之直昇機,將飛行器的體積大幅地縮至房車般大小,可輕易地停降在4×2公尺的傳統標準停車格內。利用機翼優越的升阻比特性,僅需克服極低阻力,便可獲得相當的升力,並開發高可靠度的攻角控制軌道,比之電控原件,具有幾乎同步的反應時間及幾近完美的可靠度。並首度運用打擊中心原理設計的攻角控制機構,以減少振動,並簡化了製程與機構的複雜度。分析史料,眾裡尋它千百度,最後發現目前唯有滾翼直昇機才具有成為都市交通機的潛力。本論文吸取歷史經驗,開創世界首見的滾翼直昇機概念,並在滾翼機構的設計上發揮高度精巧的創意,為將來都市交通機更深入的發展,奠定了良好的基礎。
In the recent century, many engineers made effort to develop the VTOL aircraft and concept to gain lift. Besides X-32 and X-35, only three types of VTOL aircraft, Harrier, Forger and Osprey, are considered to be mature and practical. Nowadays, more and more teams join the VTOL R&D field. The developments of Skycar, Xantus, SoloTrek XFV, Hawk 4, Cartercopter and BA609 will be spotlights in the future. Nevertheless, because of good lifting property of rotary wings, helicopters equipped with rotor are widely used VTOL aircraft. However, the rotor whose diame-ter often ranges between 7 up to even more than 30 meter presents high dashing risk and landing difficulties. Except the roof of building where fierce wind might buffet, it is hard to find the apron in a city. So it considerably weakens its original maneuver-ability. In search of real urban commuter aircraft, this research is oriented to develop a novel helicopter with revolving-wing, due to much reduced occupying space similar to a family car, it can easily land on a traditional standard 4m2m parking stall. With good lift/drag ratio of wing, it can gain considerable lift by overcoming relatively small drag. Also, we have developed highly reliable attack-angle controlling track for the revolving wing. Comparing with electric elements, this track has the advantage of nearly real-time response, too. Moreover, we make use of the sophisticated percussion theorem for designing the attack-angle controlling mechanism to reduce relevant vi-bration, also we considerably simplify the manufacturing process and associated mechanism complexity. Scanning through historic data, we can conclude that cur-rently only this type of novel revolving-wing helicopter will have a real potential of future urban commuter. This paper assimilates the historical experience to create the concept of revolving-wing helicopter and the ingenious design of revolving-wing mechanism, in the light, this paper has established a very good basis for future ad-vanced development of urban commuter aircraft.
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