請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27517
標題: Effects of Different Ions and Compost on Movement of Paraquat in Soils Using Chemically Modified Electrode
利用化學修飾電極法探討不同離子及堆肥對巴拉刈在土壤中移動性的影響
作者: Yang, Ting-Hao
楊庭豪
關鍵字: paraquat
巴拉刈
chemically modified electrode
化學修飾電極
出版社: 土壤環境科學系
摘要: Paraquat is widely used as a herbicide which have good effect, high-toxicity, stable structure and hard decomposition. We must detect paraquat of environment due to long-term accumulation in soils after long-term application of paraquat and that is leached into natural water. Furthermore, that is a importment topic for studying movement of paraquat in soils that is affected by various soil character, circumstanced condition and agricultural farming. Three different soil groups (sandstone-shale alluvial soil, slate alluvial soil and red soil) were used for experiments with blank and organic matter treatment. We used respectively cations (NH4+, Na+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+) and anions (SO42-, HPO42- and CO32-) to saturate soils and added paraquat, then respectively leached soil columns with deionized water, sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. We used electroanalytic technique in couple with chemically modified electrodes to determine paraquat of leached solution and compared the amounts of paraquat in leached solution of different treatments. The experimental results indicated Nafion-modified electrode in couple electroanalytic technique (i.e. square-wave voltammetry) could precisely and sensitively determine paraquat of leached soilution. The movement of paraquat in soil had large difference among different soil groups and treatments. The movement of paraquat in red soil apparently fast than sandstone-shale alluvial soil and slate alluvial soil. Red soil had more kaolinite with varible charge that could adsorb less paraquat than smectite and vermiculite with permanent charge. Higher concentration of Cu2+ and Pb2+ would decrease the adsorbed capacity of paraquat by soil colloid due to specific adsorption of Cu2+ and Pb2+ could reduce the adsorptive amounts of paraquat on soil colloids. Moreover, added organic matter could increase adsorption of paraquat, and that could decrease movement of paraquat in soils. The experimental model of movement for paraquat in soils could provide an important reference for further management and application of paraquat on farmland.
巴拉刈是一種被廣泛使用、除草效果佳、具有高毒性、構造穩定且不易被分解之除草劑,可能會因田間長期的施用而累積在土壤中,甚至於進入到自然水體中,所以有必要對於環境中的巴拉刈進行監測。巴拉刈是否會因為不同的土壤性質、不同的環境條件與不同的農業活動方式而使其在土壤中的移動行為有所不同是值得探討的重要課題。 本研究以三種不同土類(砂頁岩沖積土、黏板岩沖積土及紅壤),以有無施用有機質來處理,分別以NH4+, Na+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Cd2+等陽離子和SO42-, HPO42-, CO32-等陰離子先行與土壤飽和反應之後再施用巴拉刈至土壤中,利用去離子水、硫酸與氫氧化鈉溶液分別淋洗土壤管柱。接著再使用操作方便、機動性高之電化學分析技術搭配化學修飾電極來偵測土壤淋洗液中之巴拉刈含量,比較不同處理條件下之巴拉刈洗出量。 研究發現使用具有陽離子交換特性之Nafion®薄膜作為電極修飾材料對於巴拉刈之偵測效果最為靈敏。研究結果也證實使用電化學分析技術搭配化學修飾電極可對土壤溶液之巴拉刈進行方便且靈敏之分析工作。而由淋洗結果可知巴拉刈在土壤中的移動行為會因為土壤種類以及離子處理的不同而有相當大之差異性,特別在高風化程度的紅壤中巴拉刈的移動情形明顯比砂頁岩沖積土或黏板岩沖積土要來的快速,此乃因高嶺石類之可變性電荷對巴拉刈的吸附能力明顯小於膨潤石及蛭石類的永久性電荷之故,且當土壤中含有較高量的Cu2+與Pb2+時將會減少巴拉刈被土壤膠體吸附的量,Cu2+、Pb2+與土壤膠體間的特殊性吸附是降低土壤膠體對巴拉刈的吸附的原因。在有機質的處理情況下,巴拉刈被土壤吸附的量會因為有機質的增加而隨之提升,顯示有機質可有效減緩巴拉刈的移動性。此種巴拉刈在土壤環境中移動性之模擬試驗可提供巴拉刈在不同農田土壤中使用及管理上有一重要之參考依據。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27517
顯示於類別:土壤環境科學系

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