請用此 Handle URI 來引用此文件: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27954
標題: 施用殺蟲劑及堆肥對蚯蚓毒性及生質量的影響
Toxicity for earthworms and chamge of biomass influenced by insecticides treatment and compost addition.
作者: 陳怡君
Yi-Chun, Chen
關鍵字: Toxicity Test
毒性試驗
Earthworm-Lumbricidae
Lumbricus spp.
and Megascolecidae
Pheretima spp.
Compost
Chlorpyrifos
Methamidophos
Carbaryl
Carbofuran
Deltimethrin
蚯蚓
正蚓科正蚓屬及鉅蚓科環毛蚓屬
堆肥
陶斯松
達馬松
加保利
加保扶
第滅寧
出版社: 土壤環境科學系
摘要: 摘要 蚯蚓是為土壤生態中最具代表性之土壤動物,亦為評估土壤化學污染的最適當的指標生物之一。本研究採OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development)推薦之濾紙法及人造土壤試驗法作為藥劑對蚯蚓毒性測試之標準方法,進行五種常用藥劑(陶斯松,達馬松,加保力,加保扶,第滅寧)對鉅蚓科(Megascolecidae)環毛蚓屬(Pheretima spp.),及正蚓科(Lumbricidae; Lumbricus spp.)兩種蚯蚓之急毒性測試,以期了解農藥對台灣蚯蚓之毒害情形,並建立適用之毒性測試方法以作為往後評估之標準依據。此外,並探討銅、鋅含量較高的有機質肥料的施用是否會對蚯蚓造成毒害效應及影響的蚯蚓生長。 人造土壤法可測定藥劑對蚯蚓的皮膚接觸毒及口服毒,已證實比濾紙法為較佳的毒性試驗方法。 研究結果顯示藥劑在濾紙法試驗中對兩種品系蚯蚓之毒性並無一致性,人造土壤試驗中則因有機物對藥劑之吸附性而導致第滅寧對正蚓科蚯蚓及加保利對鉅蚓科蚯蚓之毒性極低。兩試驗結果顯示,影響LC50值的主要因素為蚯蚓品系,藥劑特性,及毒性試驗環境中有機質對藥劑之吸附等。供試之殺蟲劑中以第滅寧對正蚓科蚯蚓之毒性最小;而加保扶對蚯蚓毒性最高。 毒性試驗結果顯示,同一種藥劑對兩種供試蚯蚓之LC50值並無一致性,相關皆不顯著;若將同一品系蚯蚓以不同毒性測試方法評估,正蚓科呈現顯著相關,鉅蚓科則否。因此,供試蚯蚓則以正蚓科之行為模式較適合用於毒性試驗。 禽畜糞堆肥中之重金屬及堆肥施用後之化學效應在本試驗中並未對蚯蚓造成致死效應,但卻會造成蚯蚓生質量的下降。因此,若能長期進行重金屬對蚯蚓的亞致死效應評估(28天),對於堆肥添加對蚯蚓的影響評估會更為適當。 土壤肥力之分析則顯示,雖然蚯蚓培育會改善部分土壤性質,如有機碳及氮含量,然而土壤肥力的改變如氮含量,EC值,CEC值,交換性鉀,Bray-1磷等主要來自於堆肥的添加。本試驗顯示堆肥添加對土壤肥力的提升效應遠大於蚯蚓加入後對土壤的化育。
Abstract Earthworm is the most suitable representative and biological indicator among soil fauna while evaluating soil chemical pollutions. In this study, we adopted contact filter paper test and artificial soil test from OECD guideline No.207 (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) as standard toxicological testing methods. Assessing acute toxicity of five pesticides (chlorpyrifos, methamidophos, carbaryl, carbofuran, and deltamethrin) toward two earthworm species, Megascolecidae, Pheretima spp. and Lumbricidae, Lumbricus spp. respectively. In order to understand toxic risk of earthworms caused by pesticides application in Taiwan and develop an adequate toxicological testing method as a criterion to be followed. In addition, an organic fertilizer was used to investigate whether application of manure with high copper and zinc content will cause toxic effect or growth inhibition for earthworms. The artificial soil test which measure skin toxicity and stomach toxicity of pesticides towards earthworms, was shown to be a better method in toxicological test than the contact filter paper test which only can determine skin toxicity of pesticides toward earthworms. The result showed that toxicity of pesticides toward two earthworm species had no consistent relationship in the contact filter paper test; while in the artificial soil test, the sorption of pesticides by soil organic matter resulted in extremely light toxicity of deltamethrin for Lumbricidae and carbaryl for Megascolecidae. Results also showed that earthworm species, pesticides properties, and sorption of pesticides by organic matter in the testing environment were main factors influencing LC50 values of earthworms by two test methods. Toxicity of deltamethrin for Lumbricidae was the lowest, and toxicity of carbofuran for both Lumbricidae and Megascolecidae was the highest among all of the insecticides tested. The toxicity relationship between the same pesticide toward two earthworm species was not consistent to each other. If the earthworm species was compared with different testing methods, pesticides toxicity toward Lumbricidae showed significant correlation, however, pesticides toxicity towards Megascolecidae showed low correlation. Therefore, the behavior pattern of Lumbricidae was more suitable to be used to toxicity test. Heavy metals in the manure and chemical effect processed after manure application did not cause lethal effect toward earthworms, but did result in decrement of biomass. Therefore, testing sublethal toxicity caused by heavy metals in long-term experiment was more suitable for evaluating the effect of manure application toward earthworms. Analysis of soil fertility showed that even earthworms' incubation will slightly changed some soil properties, such as organic carbon and nitrogen content, but the soil fertilities change, such as nitrogen content, EC values, CEC values, exchangeable K, and Bray-1 P were mainly affected . In conclusion, the improvement of soil fertility was greater by compost application than earthworms did.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/27954
顯示於類別:土壤環境科學系

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