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標題: 有機農業發展關鍵成功因素之研究
A Study on the Key Success Factors for Development of Organic Agriculture in Taiwan
作者: 張嘉薇
Chang, Chia-Wei
關鍵字: Organic Agriculture
Key Success Factors
Modified Delphi Method
Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
出版社: 應用經濟學研究所
摘要: 隨著整體經濟的發展,國人生活品質的提高,對健康飲食認知與消費,逐漸重視健康、安全、無農藥、無化學添加物的食品。因此近年來以清潔、安全及無農藥殘留為訴求的「有機農產品」,已成為時下的潮流和趨勢,普遍受到社會大眾之青睞與喜愛。 現階段有機農業發展面臨諸多的瓶頸,因此本研究旨在探討有機農業發展之關鍵成功因素,供相關單位制定有機農業發展政策之參考。以文獻回顧方式初步彙整影響有機農業發展之因素,再利用修正式德爾菲法(Modified Delphi Method)專家問卷,凝聚產官學各專家學者之共識,修正影響有機農業發展之因素。最後透過層級分析法(Analytical Hierarchy Process,AHP),得出有機農業發展影響因素之權重及優先順序,最後選取出發展之關鍵成功因素,提供政府相關單位與驗證機構參考。 依本研究結果顯示,第二層級衡量構面之分析,各專家學者認為「法規規範」重要性最高。第三層級指標項目之分析,全體認為「法規規範」指標項目中,以「有機農產品管理法規」重要性為最高;「生產環境」指標項目中,以「有機資材之施用」重要性最高;「品質管理」指標項目中,以「有機資材驗證管理」之重要性最高;「生產輔導」指標項目中,認為「生產技術及有機資材之研發」重要性最高;「行銷輔導」指標項目中,以「有機農產品行銷通路」重要性最高;「推廣教育」指標項目中,認為「有機理念之推廣教育」重要性為最高。 整體而言,在影響有機農業發展的24個指標項目中,選取出六項關鍵成功因素,其中以「有機農產品管理法規」之重要性為最高,其次是「擴大驗證範圍」,第三為「CAS有機農產品認證驗證體系」、第四為「有機資材之施用」、第五為「有機集團栽培」,第六為「有機資材驗證管理」。 針對本研究結果,各專家學者認為重要性較高之六項關鍵成功因素,本研究提供建議為:在「有機農產品管理法規」上,政府應加速立法,如推動成立有機農業法案、研擬有機農業法規等,以利強制執行驗證查驗工作,嚇阻冒充之有機農產品,順利推動真正有機農產品的生產與運作,並建立與國際接軌之管理制度,健全有機農業體制。在「擴大驗證範圍」上,政府應擴大有機農產品驗證項目與對象,以全面涵蓋有機農產品自生產至消費過程之規範。至於「CAS有機農產品認證驗證體系」,應儘速制定相關配套規範,俾利推動CAS標章認證驗證工作,強化CAS標章之品質保證,使消費者能夠安心選購安全的有機農產品。另成立「有機集團栽培」,集中有機農戶栽培田區,避免遭受鄰近慣行田區污染,並提高自然資源循環永續利用,維護自然生態平衡。在「有機資材之施用」方面,有機資材應符合規範標準,以建立自然安全之生產環境,減輕環境負荷,促進有機農業永續經營。並解決市售有機資材品質良莠不齊問題,制定含原料來源及成分審核標準,考量發給有機資材驗證標章等「有機資材驗證管理」,降低農民使用風險。
Following the development of macroeconomics, the domestic living standards have been improved, which awakened the cognition and consumption of a healthy diet, and the value of healthy food, that has been cultivated without the use of pesticides or chemical additives. Thus, in recent years, the appeal for sanitary, safe, and pesticide-free produce, better known as organic agriculture products, has become a well-accepted tendency, and is favored by the general public. Under current conditions, the development of organic agricultural has been encountering a bottleneck. Therefore, this research is to probe into the key success factors for development of organic agriculture so as to provide the related institutions with references when drawing up the develop policies of organic agricultural. By examining documents, the initial key success factors are compiled: the consensus of experts from public or privacy is agglomerated, by means of the Modified Delphi Method survey, to modify the factors for development of organic agriculture. Following is the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) - the ration and sequences of the effect factors for development of organic agriculture are acquired, which would be submitted to the relevant governmental or certification institutions as references. According to the result of this research, the second level analysis of the examining structure, the experts from different fields believe that "Regulations” is the priority. The third level analysis: the indicative items for Regulations”, “The management act of organic agricultural products” plays the most significant role. The indication item for the “Production environment”, “The implementation of organic materials” excels; and the indication item of Quality management”, “Organic materials management certification” is the most important. For the indication item of “Production counseling”, “The operation technologies and the research & development (R & D) of organic materials” surpasses the other items. The indication item of “Marketing counseling” is “The marketing outlet of organic agricultural products”; and finally, the indication item of “Promotion education”, “The promotion education of organic concepts” exceeds the other items. As a whole of 24 indication items for the effect factors for development of organic agriculture, all of the experts agree that the importance of “The management act of organic agriculture products” is of most importance; followed by the “Enhancing the area of certification”. In the third place is the “CAS accreditation and certification system of organic agriculture products”; forth is the“Employment of organic materials”; fifth is the “Massive organic agriculture products cultivation”, and in the sixth place is the“Organic materials management certification”. According to the research, experts believe that the six most important key success factors are as follows: In terms of “Organic agricultural products management regulations”, the government should speed up the enactments of regulations, such as the impelling the of establishment of organic agricultural bills, drafting organic agricultural legislations, etc, so as to compel the examination of certification, and to prevent counterfeit organic agricultural products for the sake of advancing the production and operation of genuine organic agricultural products successfully, and at the same time building up management systems to connect it to the international community for the creation of a sound organic agriculture frame. In terms of “Enhancing the area of certification”, the government should expand the certification items and subjects of organic agricultural products in order to cover the regulations from the operation to consumption of organic agricultural products completely. When it comes to the “CAS accreditation and certification system of organic agricultural products”, a complete set of enactments should be enforced promptly in order to impel the certification of CAS, to reinforce the quality guarantee of CAS accreditation. By doing so, consumers will be able to purchase sanitary organic agricultural products without worry. Also, to set up “Massive organic agricultural products cultivation”, and to centralize organic agricultural fields to prevent them from being contaminated by neighboring conventional farming areas, so as to enhance the eternal implementation of recycling natural resources, and to maintain the balance of ecosystems. In terms of the“Employment of organic materials”, which should comply with the criteria to establish a natural, safe produce environment in order to relieve the environmental burden of advancing the eternal operation of organic agricultural products. Also, it is a concern that issuing “Organic materials management certification”, which is to deal with the problem of uneven quality of organic materials in the market, and to draw up verification standards of origin and ingredients, to reduce the risks of use for farmers.
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