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標題: Photodegradation and Biodegradation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)
作者: Wang, Chun-Kang
關鍵字: polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers
出版社: 土壤環境科學系所
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摘要: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used in polymers for a lot of plastic and electronic product to be flame retardant additives. In resent years, PBDEs have been found to bioaccumulate in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The large commercial PBDE product in use is decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209). They have been detected frequently in waters, sediments, sludge, fish, and mammals. Reaction and degradation of PBDEs in the environment are not well known. The objectives of this study are to perform the solar and UV-lamp degradation experiments of PBDEs, to understand the photodegradation pathway and kinetics of PBDEs in solvents and aqueous phase, and to evaluate the biodegradation of PBDEs in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The decay kinetics of BDE-209 was faster in UV-B range than that in UV-A range due to the absorption properties of BDE-209. Higher intensities will produce higher degradation rates of BDE-209. Photodegradation conversion of BDE-209 decreases with the increasing initial concentration of BDE-209. Photodegradation rates of high brominated BDEs are faster than low brominated BDE congeners. The reaction rate of BDE-209 was dependent on the solvent in such a way that the photodegradation rate in hexane > toluene > ethyl acetate > acetone and methanol. Nanoscale titanium dioxide particles enhanced the debromination rates of BDE-209 in aqueous phase and the increase of loading amount of nanoscale titanium dioxide particles increased the debromination efficiency. Sequential debromination was observed, suggesting BDE-209 stepwise loss bromine to form low brominated BDEs and diphenyl ether. Dibenzofuran was produced and identified by GC/MS to suggest another mechanism of the intramolecular cyclization from the hemolytic dissociation of the C-Br bond. The order of photodegradation of BDE-209 occurred at para > meta > ortho positions. In biodegradation study, debromination of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (4-BDE) is investigated with aerobic and anaerobic sludges. This also is the first report demonstrating microbaially mediated biodegradation of 4-BDE under aerobic conditions. 4-BDE biodegraded within 11 days by 68 % and 83 % with toluene and diphenyl ether, respectively, as second carbon sources to stimulate biodegradation. Anaerobic biodegradation of 4-BDE remove 35 % within 24 days by Taichung distillery's sludge and remove 82 % within 5 days by PCE domestication sludge. Ten pure culture bacteria in isolation from aerobic sludge, to further study their biodegradation capacity. Differences in the bacterial community composition between these aerobic and anaerobic samples were confirmed based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments.
多溴聯苯醚 (Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs)是常見的溴化阻燃劑,許多塑膠製品或電子產品都添加入PBDEs等阻燃劑,近年來發現PBDEs會在水生及陸生生態系統中造成生物累積,而大部分在工業上使用的PBDEs主要是十溴聯苯醚(decabrominated diphenyl ether, BDE-209),目前常在水體、底泥、魚體及哺乳動物中皆有檢測出PBDEs之案例。 環境中PBDEs之反應及代謝降解的機制尚未完全清楚。本研究光降解實驗是使用日光及UV燈光,以探討PBDEs在溶劑下與水溶液中的光降解速率與途徑,研究結果指出:十溴聯苯醚(BDE-209)在UV-B下其降解速率比UV-A還快,而BDE-209在低波長下有較大之吸光度,此現象亦反映降解速率結果;BDE-209隨著日光強度的增加其降解速率有提高的趨勢;BDE-209光降解速率隨著初始濃度的增加而衰減;高溴數PBDEs同類物其降解速率比低溴數同類物來得快;BDE-209在不同溶劑下之光降解速率比較為正己烷> 甲苯 > 乙酸乙酯 > 丙酮及甲醇;在水溶液中添加奈米二氧化鈦以間接性光降解BDE-209比直接光照降解還要迅速,並隨著二氧化鈦之濃度增加,其脫溴反應速率有明顯增加;降解途徑的探討中PBDEs的光降解是以逐步的脫溴反應形成低溴數的同類物,再進一步生成聯苯醚,而偵測到二苯駢夫喃可得知光降解過程C-Br分離後其分子內環化為另一個降解途徑,BDE-209其光降解脫溴的容易程度與其溴所在位置有關,主要是para > meta > ortho。 本研究之生物降解部分,以酒廠之好氧及厭氧活性污泥及經PCE馴化之厭氧活性污泥能有效降解一溴聯苯醚 (4-mono-BDE, 4-BDE),結果證實了在好氧情況下微生物降解PBDEs的可行性,而補助碳源的添加有助於提高降解速率,在甲苯或聯苯醚存在的情況下,11天內4-BDE分別降解了68 %及83 %。酒廠厭氧活性污泥於24天將4-BDE降解了35 %,而經PCE馴化之厭氧活性污泥在五天內即可將4-BDE降解了82 %。將降解過後之好氧污泥進行純菌的篩選,並進一步確認其降解能力,而污泥降解部分利用16S rDNA片段以PCR放大後使用變性梯度凝膠電泳(Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, DGGE)了解好氧與厭氧生物降解過程中菌相之消長變化情形。
其他識別: U0005-2608200709531400
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系



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