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|標題:||Evaluation of the Disposal Model of Food Waste Composting and Its Maturity Indexes|
food waste compost
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|摘要:||Food waste compost maturity is an important index for measurement of compost quality and for assessment of safety of land use because immature compost is detrimental to plant growth and the soil environmental. Current approaches assessing composts maturity are still not well documented. Hence, the main goals of this study are: 1. to conduct a survey on the characteristics of biodegradable food waste compost manufactured from three different disposal system, thus to identify their characteristics and to evaluate the safety and feasibility of using them as compost for crop production; 2. to evaluate the composting process of three disposal model of food waste compost and their characteristics; 3. to assess the adaptability of maturity indexes of food waste compost by chemical analysis; and 4. to study short-term effects on soil properties and nutrient uptake of Chinese cabbage (Pai-Choi) applying with a matured food waste compost.
A comparison is made among three categories of food waste composts manufactured from anaerobic barrel system (7 samples), rapid-disposal machine system (28 samples), and conventional aerated piled system (40 samples). The results indicate the composts of anaerobic barrel system are observed with the highest moisture content (H2O), organic matter (OM), and crude lipid (CL), but the lowest pH and seed germination (SG) among all categories of food waste composts. While, the composts of rapid-disposal machine system show the highest EC, SG, content of Na, N, P, and Ca, but the lowest H2O. As to the composts of conventional aerated piled system, the highest pH, content of Mg and K, but the lowest EC and CL are presented. As with higher percentage of SG, consumers are prone to be misled to consider the rapid-disposal machine system as with best quality. It is need to notice that soil quality may be degraded further when applying composts of both systems of rapid-disposal machine and anaerobic barrel with very high content of CL and relatively low pH. However, the composts of conventional aerated piled system provide better balanced three major nutrients (N, P and K) benefiting the cultivation of vegetables and fruits. But, the other two systems may cause insufficient potassium supply when applying to vegetable fields and orchards. Therefore, conventional aerated piled food waste composts are very appropriate for recycling use as fertilizers incorporated back into fields. Food waste composts of rapid-disposal machine system and anaerobic barrel system can only serve as row materials for second composting, and should not directly broadcast to field lands.
Food waste composted for 40-50 days by conventional aerated piled system conformed to the required regulation of SG. Seed germination (SG) and pH increase with composting time when aerated piled, while organic matter (OM), C/N ratio and CL decline with composting time. EC showed a trend of initial decrease followed by gradual increase during composting process. Crude lipid (CL) and pH presented a trend of gradual increase during composting with rapid-disposal machine system. As to OM, C/N ratio and EC, there was little change when composting with rapid-disposal machine system. The pH of leaching water from anaerobic barrel system lifted in the second week and slightly dropped in the third week. EC value increased with time of anaerobic barrel composting. Experiment of second aerobic composting of rapid-disposal system indicated adding 5% rice bran to composts had little influence on result or process of composting, while blending with 50% rice hull significantly raised the temperature and speeded earlier the purpose of raising the percentage of SG.
A comparative study of chemical properties of 40 aerated piled composts of food waste sourced from communities, or commercial composting plants. The results showed CL, water soluble carbon (WSC), and WSC/total organic carbon (TOC) may be considered as the most adaptable parameters for assessing maturity of food waste compost. The absorption peak of UV-Vis spectra (190-280 nm) may be served as reference indexes of maturity, while pH, EC, OM, total nitrogen (TN), carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), cation exchange capacity (CEC), nutrients and contaminants may be considered solely as compost quality parameter, but not maturity indexes.
The pot experiments of Chinese cabbage were conducted adding with a matured and aerated piled compost at 19.8, 27.8, 46.2 and 92.5 Mg/ha, respectively. The results indicated that food waste compost had short-term effects on soil with an increased EC, OM, available P, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, Na, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium exchange percentage (ESP), and potassium exchange percentage (PEP). The degree of increase was significantly proportional to the amount of compost used. The 0.1 N HCl extractable Zn contents are significantly and proportionally increased with the amount of compost used. Whereas other heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) contents in soil didn't increase. And copper content is decreased, in particular with the highest dose used. Plant analysis of Chinese cabbage (Pai-Choi) showed the increased uptake of sodium and nitrogen content were most significant, phosphorus also significant but that of magnesium were not significant. Plant calcium content was observed obviously reduced. Sodium content in both plant and soil were all increased with the amount of food waste composts but plant potassium was not increase with composts added.|
廚餘堆肥腐熟度是評估堆肥品質和農地安全施用的重要指標，因為未腐熟的堆肥不利於植物生長和土壤環境。目前用於堆肥腐熟度評估的方法並不完備。本研究的主要目的有四：1.調查三種處理方式廚餘堆肥的特性，以確認廚餘堆肥產的安全性；2.三種廚餘堆肥化製程模式之評估及其特性分析；3.以化學分析評估廚餘堆肥腐熟度指標的適用性；以及4.腐熟廚餘堆肥施用對土壤性質與小白菜養分吸收的短期影響。 比較市面上廚餘桶(7樣品)、快速廚餘機(28樣品)和好氣堆積(40樣品)等三種廚餘處理方式之產品特性，結果顯示廚餘桶產品水分、有機質和粗脂肪含量最高，而pH值和發芽率最低；快速廚餘機產品電導度、發芽率、鈉含量、營養元素氮、磷和鈣含量最高，而含水量最低；好氣堆積方式產品pH值、營養元素鉀和鎂含量最高，而電導度和粗脂肪含量最低。快速廚餘機產品的高發芽率，易誤導消費者誤判堆肥品質。施用含高粗脂肪和低pH值的快速廚餘機和廚餘桶產品，可能導致土壤品質變差。以栽培蔬果為例，三要素以傳統好氣堆積者較為平衡，快速廚餘機和廚餘桶產品有鉀肥不足之慮。因此，廚餘堆肥要回歸農田當肥料使用，仍需以傳統好氣堆積方式為宜，廚餘桶及快速廚餘機產品只可當作堆肥原料，而不宜直接撒施於農田。 好氣堆積處理廚餘製成堆肥，約40-50天其產品發芽率可符合要求。傳統好氣處理方式的pH值和發芽率隨堆積時間增加而增加，有機質、碳氮比和粗脂肪則隨堆積時間而下降，電導度值呈先減後增趨勢；快速廚餘機在處理過程中pH值和粗脂肪有逐漸增加的趨勢，而有機質、碳氮比、發芽率和導電度則變化很少；廚餘桶收集之滲出水pH值在第二週增高，第三週則微幅降低，電導度隨時間的進程而增加。快速廚餘機產品無害化二次好氣醱酵試驗顯示，添加5%米糠對堆肥化過程或結果影響不大，稻殼添加至50%之增溫效果顯著，且較早達成發芽率提昇的目的。 採集社區或商業化堆肥場好氣堆積廚餘堆肥樣品40個，進行腐熟度化學分析評估。以含油分高的廚餘為堆肥原料，粗脂肪、水溶性碳、水溶性碳與有機態氮比值可作為廚餘堆肥腐熟度優選指標；水溶性碳之紫外光光譜(190-280 nm)吸收峰變化可作為腐熟度的參考指標。其他pH值、電導度值、有機質、全氮、碳氮比、陽離子交換容量、養分和污染物含量等是堆肥品質指標，而非腐熟度指標。 腐熟廚餘堆肥施用使土壤電導度值、有機質、有效磷、交換性鉀、鈣、鎂、鈉、鈉吸附比、交換性鈉百分比提高，尤其在最高用量(92.5公噸/公頃)時急遽增加；土壤0.1 N HCl抽出鋅，隨施用量增加而增加的趨勢，銅則降低，鉻、鎘、鉛和鎳含量不受影響或影響不大。隨著廚餘堆肥施用量的增加，小白菜植體中鈉和氮增加為極明顯，磷增加明顯，鎂影響不顯著，鈣顯著減少。小白菜植體鈉含量與土壤鈉含量隨廚餘堆肥施用量增加而顯著增加，植體鉀含量則否。
|Appears in Collections:||土壤環境科學系|
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