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Effects of Temperature, Dehydration and Chemical Treatment on the Quality and Physiology of Cut Rose Flowers
|摘要:||本試驗以‘Grand Gala’、‘Noblesse’與‘Super baby’等玫瑰切花商業栽培品種作為試驗材料，以探討瓶插溫度、離水時間、外加糖類、化學藥劑處理及冷藏對玫瑰切花之花朵開放及瓶插壽命之影響。
在不同瓶插溫度下，‘Grand Gala’、‘Noblesse’與‘Super baby’ 3者之切花鮮重下降速率與瓶插溫度成正比，瓶插溫度越高鮮重下降越快，而此3品種維持鮮重的效果均以藥劑預措後於5 ℃瓶插者最佳。花朵開放之受瓶插溫度影響，則因品種而有所差異，其中以 ‘Grand Gala’較不受影響。在瓶插過程中，玫瑰切花花瓣的澱粉含量隨時間的增加而有下降的趨勢，全可溶性糖含量則隨著瓶插天數的增加而增加，瓶插溫度越低此現象越明顯。瓶插溫度對‘Grand Gala’、‘Noblesse’與‘Super baby’之花色表現的影響勝於藥劑預措處理的影響，隨瓶插溫度的降低對維持花瓣之L、a、b值的效果較佳。此外，玫瑰切花瓶插壽命隨瓶插溫度的降低而增加，‘Noblesse’與‘Super baby’均以5 ℃之瓶插壽命最長，而‘Grand Gala’則是以10 ℃的瓶插壽命較佳。
離水處理後，‘Grand Gala’並未立即產生乙烯，但隨瓶插天數的增加乙烯會逐漸形成，且花莖未重剪者其乙烯生成量高於花莖重剪者。此外，隨離水時間的延長，有助於‘Grand Gala’切花瓶插時鮮重的增加，但花瓣澱粉含量隨著瓶插時間的增加而呈現下降的趨勢會越明顯。且‘Grand Gala’離水處理後，無論花莖重剪與否，並不影響瓶插初期花瓣的電解質滲漏率。
外加不同糖類濃度瓶插處理有助於維持切花鮮重、延長切花瓶插壽命、促進花朵開放、維持花色穩定的效果。且隨著處理濃度的增加此效果越顯著，‘Grand Gala’、‘Noblesse’與‘Super baby’三者皆是以6％葡萄糖處理對延長瓶插壽命的效果最佳。‘Grand Gala’、‘Noblesse’與‘Super baby’之花瓣電解質滲漏隨著瓶插時間而增加，而外加糖類處理並不能改善花瓣離子滲漏情形。
‘Grand Gala’以不同藥劑瓶插處理時，會促進乙烯的產生。以10 mM proline處理可改善切花的水分吸收。Malonate 、proline配合ATA同時處理時均可增加花瓣中的澱粉含量，以及增加花瓣的全可溶性糖含量。‘Grand Gala’以藥劑預措4 hr以20 mM ATA混合10 mM proline的瓶插壽命效果較佳；藥劑預措可改善5 ℃冷藏3週後鮮重的維持及水分的吸收，其中以20 mM ATA混合10 mM proline預措16 hr的效果較佳。
玫瑰切花以ATA瓶插或預措處理者均可增加水分吸收、維持切花鮮重及延長瓶插壽命。ATA處理可促進‘Grand Gala’與‘Super baby’切花水分吸收，以kinetin處理則會抑制玫瑰切花的水分吸收。ATA處理或混合不同濃度IAA處理，均具有維持鮮重的效果，但水分吸收能力隨IAA濃度的增加而下降。‘Grand Gala’與‘Super baby’以ATA或混合IAA同時處理會促進乙烯的產生。ATA混合0.01 mM IAA處理，可延長‘Grand Gala’的瓶插壽命。|
Three cultivars of Rosa hybrid ‘Grand Gala', ‘Noblesse' and ‘Super baby' were tested in this study to investigate the effects of the various temperature, time of dehydration, addition of sugars, chemicals treatment and cold storage on the flower opening and vase life of cut rose flowers. ‘Grand Gala', ‘Noblesse' and ‘Super baby' were placed in various temperature. The fresh weight of cut flowers decreased with the temperature. The higher the temperature, the less the fresh weight. After pulsed with 200 mg/l 8-HQS mixed 500 mg/l citrate and 2 % sucrose for 8 hr, the cut roses maintained the fresh weight of flowers were better at 5℃.In contrast to ‘Noblesse' and ‘Super baby', the flowers opening of ‘Grand Gala' cut roses were uneffected by the temperature. Periods of flower opening were accompanied by decreased in starch and increased in soluble sugars of petals. This change of carbohydrate contents were related to the temperature. The values of L, a, b of petals were affected by the temperature more than the chemicals pulsed. Not only the ability of maintain the petal color but also the vase life of cut rose flowers increased with the temperature lowered. The vase life of ‘Noblesse' and ‘Super baby' were longest at 5 ℃, but the vase life of ‘Grand Gala' were better at 10 ℃. For rehydration after transient water stress, there were no ethylene produced immediately of ‘Grand Gala' cut rose flowers. Ethylene production would be increased gradually by the time. The flower stem unrecut which ethylene produced were higher than the stem recut 5 cm off. The longer the time of dehydrated, the longer the fresh weight of ‘Grand Gala' cut rose flowers increased during the vase. Increasing the time of dehydration, the starch contents of petals decreased with the time were significantly changed. No matter the stem recut or not, transient water stress had no effect on the initial electrolyte leakage of petals on ‘Grand Gala' cut rose. In another test, sugars were added into the vase water. Sugars could maintain the fresh weight of flower, prolong the vase life, accelerate flower opening greatly, and maintain flower color. Those effects were appeared significantly with the concentrations of sugars increased. All of the ‘Grand Gala', ‘Noblesse' and ‘Super baby' which treated with 6 % dextrose had the longest vase life. The electrolyte leakage of petals on three cut rose cultivars were increased by the time and which couldn't improved by addition of sugars. ‘Grand Gala' treated with chemicals would increase ethylene production. The holding solution of 10 mM proline improved ‘Grand Gala' cut rose water uptake. Mixture of 20 mM ATA and malonate or proline could increase the starch and soluble sugars contents of petals. The pulse treatment of mixture with 20 mM ATA and 10mM proline for 4 hours extended vase life of ‘Grand Gala' cut rose. After storage 3 weeks at 5 ℃, that mixture of 20 mM ATA and 10mM Pro for 16 hours had the longest vase life. ‘Grand Gala' cut roses pulsed with chemicals could maintain fresh weight of flowers and improve water uptake after cold storage. Cut rose treated with ATA by holding and pulsing solution induced more water uptake, maintained fresh weight of cut rose, then extended vase life. The holding solution of 20 mM ATA improved ‘Grand Gala' and ‘Super baby' cut rose water uptake. Cut rose treated with kinetin inhibited water uptake. The holding solution of mixture ATA and IAA could maintain fresh weight of ‘Grand Gala' and ‘Super baby' cut rose but water uptake of cut roses were inhibited with increased the concentrations of IAA. The mixture of ATA and IAA increased ethylene production at the same time. The holding solution of 20 mM ATA and 0.01 mM IAA extended vase life of ‘Grand Gala' cut rose.
|Appears in Collections:||園藝學系|
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