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Mechanism of Cr(VI) removal by dead fungal biomass of Neurospora crassa
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研究結果顯示，於初始溶液pH 1.0至3.0、避光條件下，經過六小時的反應，1.0 g L-1真菌殘體可移除20-54 %的六價鉻。然而經過UV光照後，六價鉻則可在相同反應時間內被完全移除。由XANES及XPS的分析結果顯示，鍵結在真菌殘體上的鉻皆以三價的型態存在，表示真菌殘體移除六價鉻的過程中確實發生還原反應。各項參數對真菌殘體移除六價鉻的影響則發現，當初始溶液pH值越低、添加三價鐵及UV光照條件下，真菌殘體對六價鉻的移除速率越快。而由FT-IR及13C-NMR之光譜分析可知，與六價鉻反應後，真菌殘體表面的－C=O、－NH、－CO和－CH等官能基可能減少或改變其鍵結型態，表示這些官能基與鉻的還原及鍵結有關。此外，真菌殘體移除六價鉻之過程中，其表面官能基會因為鉻的氧化而溶解，六價鉻亦可經由溶液中可溶性有機碳的氧化而還原。|
Cr exists in the environment in two common oxidation states of Cr(III) and Cr(VI). These two Cr species exhibit significantly differences in charges, physicochemical properties as well as chemical and biochemical reactivities. Cr(VI) is toxic to both plants and animals, and it is a strong oxidizing agent and a potential carcinogen. While Cr(III) is less toxic or nontoxic to animals, and it may poison plants only at very high concentrations. Therefore, efforts to treating Cr(VI)-containing wastewaters through an adsorption or reduction technique are required to eliminate the hazard of Cr(VI) to the ecosystem. Recently, the dead fungal biomass have been confirmed to be effective bio-materials for converting Cr(VI) to Cr(III) at acidic conditions; however, the reaction time is often relatively long and the specific functional groups involved in Cr(VI) reduction are unclear. To enhance Cr(VI) removal and clarify the reaction mechanisms of Cr(VI) on biomaterials, a technique involving light and Fe(III) was developed to examine the interactions of Cr(VI) with Neurospora crassa as a model fungus. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficiency of Cr(VI) removal by a dead fungal biomass of Neurospora crassa as influenced by UV light, pHs and the addition of Fe(III). In addition, the possible functional groups involved in the process of Cr(VI) removal, either in the dark or exposure to the light, were identified and systemically investigated using spectroscopic analysis. The results show that 20-54 % of added Cr(VI) (96.15 μM) was removed by 1.0 g of dead fungal biomass at pH 1.0-3.0 after 6 h reaction in the dark. However, 96.15 μM Cr(VI) disappeared completely under the same reaction time and experimental conditions when light was present. The XANES and XPS spectra of the Cr-loaded biomass showed that most of the Cr on the fungus were Cr(III), a result indicating the occurrence of Cr(VI) reduction on the surfaces of the fungus. In addition, dissolved organic carbons (DOC) resulting from the dissolution of N. c.-biomass may also contribute to Cr(VI) reduction. The rates of Cr(VI) removal increased with a decrease in pH and with the addition of 89.5 μM Fe(III) under illumination. Spectroscopic studies, e.g., FTIR and NMR analysis, indicated that the -C=O, -NH, -CO and -CH of N. c.-biomass may be responsible for the reduction/adsorption of Cr.
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