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標題: 柿樹嫁接不親和性及耐寒性之研究
Studies on the Graft Incompatibility and Cold Hardiness of Persimmon Tree (Diospyros Kaki L.)
作者: 蔡惠文
Tsai, Hui-Wen
關鍵字: persimmon

graft incompatibility
bark extracts
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 本試驗目的為探討‘富有’可能因產生某些毒質,藉由韌皮部的運輸,傳送到山豆柿的根部,而使山豆柿的根系發育受損,進而影響養分、水分的吸收與運移而產生嫁接不親和性之障礙。 不同穗砧組合,以山豆柿/山豆柿的植株生長較快,嫁接處的癒合較佳,‘富有’/山豆柿的植株生長較慢。在碳水化合物的累積,‘富有’/山豆柿地上部的全可溶性糖較少,但澱粉含量多。莖的總酚類化合物含量,以‘富有’/山豆柿高於山豆柿/山豆柿的穗砧組合。 以1%、5%、10%之山豆柿、‘富有’、‘牛心柿’樹皮萃出液及去離子水為對照組,處理山豆柿種子。樹皮液處理組,會抑制山豆柿幼苗根系的生長,以10%‘富有’樹皮萃出液的抑制較明顯,其根尖細胞褐化、皺縮,影響水分運移。山豆柿根系的可溶性單寧、總酚類化合物及全可溶性蛋白質含量均以10%‘富有’樹皮液處理組最高,推測是‘富有’樹皮液中含有某種酚類物質,使山豆柿根系生長受抑制。 ‘富有’樹皮萃出液,濃度1%、10%對山豆柿種子發芽率上無顯著差異。植株發育上則表現顯著抑制生長現象。山豆柿植株鮮重與乾重均以對照組較高,而總酚類化合物以1%與10%處理組較高。 過氧化酵素活性與電泳分析,因品種的差異而有不同的酵素活性與條帶,初步結果顯示過氧化酵素的活性、電泳圖譜與柿樹嫁接親和性沒有明顯的相關性,仍待進一步研究。 山豆柿、‘平核無’、‘牛心柿’、‘富有’枝條分別於落葉後及萌芽前取樣,經-22.5℃處理後的離子滲漏值,以山豆柿的值最高,澱粉含量最低。‘富有’離子滲漏值最低,澱粉含量最高,顯示耐寒性與澱粉累積有關。萌芽前取樣,以‘平核無’與‘富有’的離子滲漏值最低。全可溶性糖含量,以‘平核無’與‘富有’的含量最高,此時的耐寒性與全可溶性糖含量有關。
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the graft incompatibility between ‘Fuyu' and D. japonica. It is general believed that the ‘Fuyu' persimmon could produce certain toxic chemical compound which can be transported via phloem to the root of D. japonica. The toxic principle is harmful to the development of the root system of D. japonica during graftage by affecting mineral nutrients uptake and translocation. Among the various combination of scions and rootstocks, the compatibility between D. japonica scion grafted on the same rootstock performed relatively better than ‘Fuyu' grafted onto D. japonica. The former had rapid growth rate, more carbohydrate and cells fusion quicker at the grafting union. In contrast, the latter combination had a lower growth rate, more starch and less carbohydrate in the scion leaves. Total phenolic compounds content of Fuyu/D. japonica were higher than D. japonica/D. japonica in the stem. Tissue samples (1%, 5%, 10 % barks) of D. japonica, ‘Fuyu', ‘Bull Heart' were extracted with deionized water (use water as a check). Bark extracts were used to treat the seeds of D. japonica. The root growth of the seedling was slightly inhibited by 1% of bark extract and was significantly inhibited at 10 %. The affected cells were brown in color and shrunken at the root apex. The symptom seemed to show that water transport was affected. Chemical analysis showed that the soluble tannin, total phenolic compounds and soluble protein content were high in the seedling root with 10 % Fuyu bark extract treatment. It is presumed that Fuyu bark extract contain certain kind of phenolic compound which was responsible for the inhibition of seedling root growth. Experiment data indicated that no difference was found between 1% and 10% Fuyu bark extract on seeds germination, but growth of seedlings of D. japonica were significantly inhibited. Dry and fresh weights of D. japonica were less than the control while total phenolic compound was higher after 1% or 10% bark extracts treatment. Results of peroxidase activity and electrophoresis showed different enzyme activities and band patterns due to the dissimilarity in varieties. Primary results disclosed that there was no significant relationship between peroxidase isozyme pattern and graft compatibility. D.japonica, ‘Hiratanaenashi, ‘Bull Heart', ‘Fuyu' persimmon shoots were collected separately at leaf abscission and pre-bud bursting stage. Electrolyte leakages from the deep-freezed (-22.5℃) tissues were determined. Results of leaf abscission indicated that D. japonica had the highest leakage level but the lowest starch content while Fuyu had the lowest leakage but with the highest starch. This seemed to indicate a positive relation between cold hardness and starch content. Samples before bud bursting showed that ‘Hiratanenashi' and ‘Fuyu' had the lowest electrolyte leakage and highest soluble sugar content also indicated a positive relationship between the cold hardness and soluble carbohydrate.
Appears in Collections:園藝學系



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