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Exploitation of organic-rich waste resources from monosodium glutamate and paper-mill industries for agricultural production and C-sequestration
monosodium glutamate wastewater
paper-mill wastewater, Azospirillum growth medium, soil organic carbon(SOC)
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|摘要:||Present studies were conducted to explore the suitability of monosodium glutamate industrial wastewater (MW) and paper-mill wastewater (PW) for agricultural production and carbon sequestration. Effect of MW and PW on early growth of plant species; Chinese cabbage, maize and pai tsai was tested by the seed germination bioassay, growth chamber, subsequently in greenhouse by tray and pot studies and finally by field experiment. Effect of MW application rates on the plant biomass yield, nitrogen content and soil properties was analyzed. At MW concentrations below 1%, germination indices for maize and Chinese cabbage plants were significantly (p<0.01) higher than the Control. The greenhouse tray and pot study resulted in significant increase in maize and Chinese cabbage plant biomass yield at MW application rates of 5,000 and 10,000 L ha-1. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was also increased by the addition of MW and PW due to the presence of significant amounts of organic C in the wastewaters. In another pot study, to alleviate the acidic pH of MW, highly alkaline PW was used. MW and PW were applied at three rates i.e., 0, 5,000 and 7,500 L ha-1 and 0, 3,500 and 5,000 L ha-1, respectively. Significant increase in the maize growth and nutrition were observed in all the wastewater treatments compared to the Control without any adverse affects. MW was also used as a culture medium for Azospirillum rugosum strain IMMIB AFH-6 inoculant (In) by optimizing the dilution at 2.5% and pH 7.0 ± 0.1. Seed germination bioassay results revealed that IMMIB AFH-6 grown in MW stimulated the radicle and epicotyl elongation of maize and pai tsai. Strain IMMIB AFH-6 inoculated to maize under growth chamber study revealed higher dry matter production than Control. Pai tsai recorded significantly higher dry matter production when treated with strain IMMIB AFH-6 and chemical fertilizers than Control. The PW was applied at the rate of 5,000 and 10,000 L ha-1 singly and in combination with A. rugosum and CF, resulted in high plant dry matter production and SOC buidup. In field experiment MW was used at 6,000 L ha-1 and its acidity was neutralized with PW and lime. Maize plant height, plant dry matter production, leaf area index (LAI) at 60 DAS, ears plant-1, kernels ear-1 and weight of 100 kernels were significantly (p<0.05) higher in MW, CF, MW+PW and MW+Lime treatments than the Control. Plant N concentration was significantly higher in MW than Control; kernel N concentration was significantly higher in MW+PW and MW+Lime than Control. After harvesting of maize, soil organic matter (SOM) content was recorded significantly higher in MW, MW+PW and MW+Lime over other treatments. Humic substances (C-HS) were significantly higher in MW+PW than other treatments. Combination of 75% of each lyophilized MW and chemical fertilizer produced significantly higher maize dry matter than Control.
We demonstrate that after neutralizing the acidity of MW, it is suitable for A. rugosum growth. PW can be used either in combination of MW or chemical fertilizers and inoculants for biomass production and SOC buildup. Using MW singly or in combination with PW and lime stimulates growth components and yield of maize, which are comparable to chemical fertilizers, and also increases SOM and C-HS content. Hence, we suggest that MW and PW can be safely used in agriculture for growing energy crops and soil carbon sequestration as a low cost green practice with multiple benefits.|
本文探討運用製味素廢水(MW)與製紙廢水(PW)於農業生產與碳吸存之策略。首先利用種子發芽生物分析、溫室試驗(穴盤與盆栽)以及田間試驗以研究製味素廢水與製紙廢水對於大白菜、玉米與白菜等植物早期生長的影響。本研究分析不同施用比率的製味素廢水對於作物生產質量、氮含量以及土壤特性之影響，並發現：當製味素廢水濃度低於1%，大白菜和玉米的發芽指標(GI)明顯比控制組高(p<0.01)。溫室穴盤和盆栽的研究結果顯示：使用介於5,000到10,000 L ha-1間的製味素廢水，玉米與大白菜的生產量較控制組有顯著的增加。由於廢水中含有大量的有機碳，添加製味素廢水和製紙廢水可以增加土壤有機碳(SOC)的含量。另一項研究，使用高鹼性的製紙廢水可以中和改善高酸性的製味素廢水。本研究施用製味素廢水(0、5,000和7,500 L ha-1)與製紙廢水(0、3,500和5,000 L ha-1) 明顯增加玉米的生長與養份，且無任何負面效應。將製味素廢水稀釋至最適濃度2.5%，pH 值在7.0 ± 0.1時亦可做為Azospirillum rugosum IMMIB AFH-6 菌株接種劑之培養基。種子發芽生物分析結果顯示：生長於製味素廢水的IMMIB AFH-6菌株可促進玉米和白菜胚根與胚莖的生長。在生長箱試驗中，施加IMMIB AFH-6菌株對於白菜的植物生質量較控制組為高。施用IMMIB AFH-6菌株及化學肥料使白菜有較控制組更高的生產量。此外，製紙廢水亦可運用於生產白菜和土壤碳的建構。本研究分析單獨添加製紙廢水(施加量5,000 L ha-1與10,000 L ha-1 )及其分別與接種劑(In-NB)和化學肥料(CF)搭配混合的處理對於作物造成高的作物產量及土壤有機碳的積聚。使用6,000 L ha-1製味素廢水及製紙廢水和石灰中和的製味素廢水進行田間試驗，經播種後60天，「製味素廢水」、 「CF」、 「製味素廢水+製紙廢水」和「製味素廢水+石灰」處理之玉米高度、乾重產量、葉面積指標(LAI)、每棵作物的果穗軸數量、每穗軸的穗粒數量 及 100粒的重量均較控制組為高。製味素廢水處理之作物氮濃度亦明顯較控制組高；「製味素廢水+製紙廢水」及「製味素廢水+石灰」之穗粒N濃度均較控制組高。玉米收穫之後，「製味素廢水」、「製味素廢水+製紙廢水」及「製味素廢水+石灰」處理的土壤有機質含量明顯較其他處理為高。結合75%製味素廢水的冷凍乾燥物及化肥的處理產生較控制組高的玉米乾重。本研究證明酸性中和後的製味素廢水，與施用6,000 L ha-1 可以成功運用於農業。製味素廢水適合被當作A. rugosum之培養基。製紙廢水可以運用於幫助白菜作物的生產以及土壤有機碳含量的建立。單獨運用製味素廢水或與製紙廢水及石灰混合促進玉米的生長及生產，且增加土壤有機質及腐植酸的含量。因此，我們建議製味素廢水與製紙廢水作為具多重效益的低成本綠色實務，可以安全使用於生長能源作物及碳蓄存的農業。
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