Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28302
標題: 瓶裝水之最適價格估計-以台灣為例
Estimating the Optimal Price for Bottled Water-The Evidence from Taiwan
作者: 黃薏樺
Huang, Yi-Hua
關鍵字: bottled water
瓶裝水
environment
externality
demand-supply model
internalization of external cost
環境
外部性
供給需求模型
外部成本內生化
出版社: 應用經濟學系所
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摘要: 瓶裝水市場於近年來快速擴張,2007年全球銷售1億5000多萬公噸的瓶裝水,每年此產業必須消耗1800萬桶原油,以及1300多億加侖的水作為原物料。大量消費瓶裝水也讓環境付出了代價,從生產到上架的過程,每公噸瓶裝水會產生三公噸的二氧化碳。除了製造及運送瓶裝水會產生負的外部性之外,處理使用後的空瓶也是一大問題,目前全球寶特瓶平均回收率約兩成左右,而這些塑膠瓶最後皆造成環境污染。 本文目的為估計台灣地區瓶裝水之最適價格,目前台灣瓶裝水的市場價格,未將環境污染所造成的外部成本納入考量,不論消費者或是生產者皆無人對環境成本負起責任,本研究僅估計瓶裝水所產生的兩項外部成本:能源成本與廢棄物清理成本,再將此兩種外部成本內生化,使供需兩方必須對其行為所產生的外部性負責,如此一來瓶裝水的價格就可以反應出環境成本。 本研究使用台灣地區瓶裝水2003年至2008年之月資料,利用三階段最小平方法估計台灣地區瓶裝水之供給-需求模型。根據實證結果可得知,需求價格、人口與國民所得對需求量有顯著影響。由供給方程式的實證結果可知,供給價格、運輸成本和薪資成本對供給量有顯著的影響。本文設計三種不同的模擬情境,分別為:加入外部成本於供給價格、加入外部成本於需求價格和同時增加外部成本於供給價格和需求價格。若增加外部成本於供給價格上,會讓均衡價格上升而均衡量下降,將外部成本納入需求價格,會使得均衡價格與均衡量皆下降。若外部成本於增加供給價格及需求價格,最後均衡價格上升而均衡量下降。 本研究將瓶裝水所產生的外部成本內生化,且透過市場價格機制讓瓶裝水所產生的外部性可獲得解決,而從模擬的結果也顯示出,將外部成本內生於供給價格與需求價格可以降低瓶裝水均衡量,達到減少整體社會瓶裝水的使用量。
In 2007, more than one hundred and fifty million tons of bottled water was sold all around the world. In order to support this industry, 18 million tubs of crude oil and 130 billion gallons of water must be consumed each year. The great quantity of bottled water consumption has brought consequences to the environment. In addition to the negative externalities from the production and transportation of bottled water, empty bottles disposal is also a problem. The main purpose of this paper is to estimate the optimal price of bottled water in Taiwan. At present, the price of bottled water in Taiwan does not include the external cost and no matter consumers or producers, none is responsible for environmental cost. Therefore, this paper mainly calculates two kinds of external cost generated from bottled water: energy cost and waste disposal cost. In such a manner, consumers and producers are both in charge of the externalities caused by their own behaviors and the price of bottled water can truly reflect the environment cost. This study collects the monthly data about bottled water between 2003 and 2008 and three-stage least squares (3SLS) is adopted to estimate the demand-supply model of bottled water market in Taiwan. This study designs three scenarios: adding the external cost to supply price, adding the external cost into demand price, and adding external cost to supply price and demand price. To internalize the externalities into the demand-supply model through market mechanism, we can solve the externality of bottled water. According to the simulation results, to internalize external cost to the price can reduce the equilibrium quantity and decrease the bottled water consumption of the whole society.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28302
其他識別: U0005-1701201018340100
文章連結: http://www.airitilibrary.com/Publication/alDetailedMesh1?DocID=U0005-1701201018340100
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