Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28330
標題: 介質理化特性及其對甘藍與番茄穴盤苗之影響
The Physical and Chemical Properties of Commercial Media and their Effects on Growing Cabbage and Tomato Plug Seedlings
作者: 薛佑光
Hseuh, Yow-Guang
關鍵字: Medium
介質
Plug Nursery
Peatmoss
Cabbage
Tomato
Physical and Chemical Properties
穴盤育苗
泥炭苔
甘藍
番茄
理化特性
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 使用十三種國內市售穴盤育苗介質,在溫室中以128格PE穴盤分別進行甘藍與番茄育苗栽培。調查分析供試介質於育苗前及各育苗階段之理化特性,了解介質理化特性變化情形;並記錄及評估育苗期間與定植後,不同介質所栽培之穴盤苗生長量和壯苗程度(指標),探討介質理化特性對穴盤苗及定植後生育之影響。 供試介質成份主要由白泥炭苔及黑泥炭苔所組成,其總孔隙度隨白色泥炭苔含量增加而增加,介質粒子愈小總孔隙度愈低;充氣孔隙度與容器容水量的高低則因各介質添加不同比例的真珠石、蛭石、砂及吸水劑等而互有不同。總體密度隨白泥炭苔、真珠石的含量增加而遞減,並隨細砂的含量增加而提高。水苔泥炭之pH值都低於4,因供試介質皆有添加石灰而達到pH值5.0以上。EC值以黑泥炭苔及肥料含量多的介質較高,約在1.0 mS/cm以上。 供試介質總孔隙度在甘藍育苗期間,早期快速下降而後回升接近育苗前的值,而番茄育苗期間,則呈較緩慢下降而後回升接近原來值,其中含有較多細籤黑泥炭苔的介質之總孔隙度回升幅度較高。不論甘藍苗或番茄苗,介質之充氣孔隙度在育苗前半期都呈明顯上升及後半期平緩的趨勢;容器容水量在育苗初期則大幅下降,中後期呈平緩的現象。介質總體密度只呈小幅的變化。大部份pH值低於6的介質,其pH值隨育苗日數的增加而增加,並逐漸趨近灌溉水的pH值(6.8~7.0),pH值高於7的介質也逐漸下降接近灌溉水的pH值。介質EC值在育苗初期下降最多﹐並隨著育苗日數的增加而緩慢下降﹐在施肥後數日內﹐EC值會有略微上升的現象。 甘藍苗在育苗初期﹐以供試介質之充氣孔隙度中等者(介於5~6﹪)及EC值低於0.38 mS/cm以下者生長最佳;於育苗中期﹐以介質之充氣孔隙度相對較低者(介於15.78~16.71﹪)、容器容水量在74.5~75.6﹪及EC值介於0.16~0.22者生育最佳;到育苗後期﹐以介質充氣孔隙度在15~17﹪及EC值在0.26~0.29 mS/cm者生育最佳。 生育最佳的番茄苗其介質理化特性範圍較甘藍苗為廣﹐在育苗初期﹐以供試介質充氣孔隙度低者(介於8.36~9.10﹪)、容器容水量中高者(介於80~85﹪)及EC值介於0.43~0.26者生育最佳;於育苗中期﹐以容器容水量中低者(介於72~80﹪)、pH值在5.7~6.6、EC值在0.25~0.5 mS/cm之間的介質所育番茄苗生長最佳;到育苗後期﹐介質物理特性範圍不影響生育情形﹐而以pH值5.78以下、EC值0.36~0.47 mS/cm之間的介質育苗者生育最好。 甘藍及番茄苗定植後的生長量﹐隨定植日數增加﹐受育苗時介質之理化特性影響漸小;不同介質所育甘藍苗之葉球總產量無顯著差異﹐而以介質pH值在5.46~6.25之間育苗者早期產量有較高的現象。
The objective of this study is to investigate the 13 commercial media on plugs seedling growth of cabbage and tomato. The seeds of cabbage and tomato were sown in 128 cell-PE plugs at TSS greenhouse. The changes of physical and chemical properties of different media were investigated before and during seedling growth stages. Seedling growth parameter were assessed seedling growth and after transplanting in field. The major components of tested media were white and black peat mosses. Total porosity was increased with increasing of white peat moss and the smaller of the particles had smaller in total porosity. Degree of the air-filled porosity and container capacity were varied with ratios of perlite, vermiculite, sand and wetting agent. Bluk density was decreased as white peat moss and perlite increased, but would increased with increasing of fine sand. The pH value of sphagnum peat moss was below 4 originally, however, after adding of lime into the media, the pH value would be above 5. The EC value was higher than 1.0mS/cm when media contained more black peat moss and fertilizer. Total porosity had been declined rapidly at the early seedling stage, nevertheless, risen again to the prior value during the seedling growth in cabbage. On the contrary, total porosity had declined gradually and risen again to the original value in tomatoes. The rising range of total porosity was higher in media which contained more fine black peat moss. Air-filled porosity of the media had been increased significantly at the early stage and become mildly later. Container capacity had decreased substantially at the early stage and level off after middle stage. The change in bluk density of medium was not distinct. The pH values of media were changing toward 6.8-7.0 which conincide with the pH value of irrigation water for medium with pH values either below 6 or above 7 originally. EC value of medium had decreased dramatically at the early stage of seedling growth and then slowly decreased in late stages. Days after fertilization, the EC value would risen a little. Moderate air-filled porosity (5 to 6%) and EC below 0.38 were the best medium for the early stage seedling growth in cabbage. A lower air-filled porosity (15.78 to 16.71%), container capacity around 74.5 to 75.6% and EC value about 0.16 to 0.22mS/cm were the best conditions for the middle-stage seedling growth. However, at the late stage, air-filled porosity 15 to 17% and EC value 0.26 to 0.29mS/cm would be recommended. The optimal ranges of physical and chemical properties of medium for the tomato seedlings were wider than cabbage. At the early stage, air-filled porosity 8.36 to 9.10%, container capacity from middle to high (80 to 85%) and EC value 0.43 to 0.26mS/cm. For the middle stage of seedling growth, container capacity from middle to low (72 to 80%), pH value 5.7 to 6.6, EC value 0.25 to 0.5, were the best conditions. After all, the physical and chemical properties of medium did not significantly affect the growth. However, the pH value below 5.78, EC value 0.36 to 0.47 would be suggested. The effects of physical and chemical properties of medium decreased as the days after transplanting increased. There were no significant differences in total yields of cabbage while using of different medium in nursery.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28330
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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