Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28366
標題: 蓮霧果實採收後寒害及處理技術之研究
Studies on Chilling Injury and Handling Technique of Wax Aple Fruit (Syzgium samaragense Merr.et Perry.)During Postharvest
作者: 黃博雅
Hwang, Bor-Yea
關鍵字: Wax Apple
蓮霧
Chilling Injury
寒害
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 本論文目的為調查蓮霧果實經低溫貯藏後所發生之生理障礙,不同季節果 實貯藏所需之溫度及時間,以及不同前處理方法對減輕寒害的影響,並探 討檢疫條件以提供外銷之參考。蓮霧果實寒害徵狀首先在果實表面形成許 多凹陷小病斑、果皮顏色變淡、果肉呈水浸狀,嚴重者果實發霉腐爛。冬 果在 0℃、5℃ 及 10℃ 的溫度貯藏下不論時間長短都可發生寒害徵狀, 在 15℃、20℃ 及 25℃ 寒害徵狀則不會發生,但伴隨貯藏溫度增高則腐 爛率也隨之增加。夏果在 0.5℃、3℃、5℃、10℃ 及 15℃ 均可發生寒 害,在 15℃ 以上則無,但高溫下則不宜較長時間貯藏。因此推論蓮霧較 佳之貯藏溫度:冬果為 10℃ 以上 15℃ 以下為宜;夏果則在 15℃ 以上 20℃ 以下較適當。蓮霧果實貯藏於低溫再回溫,其呼吸率及乙烯釋放速 率皆有上升的現象,但低溫長時間貯藏將會造成果實不可逆的傷害,呼吸 率上升後無法再下降。0℃ 及 5℃ 貯藏 9 天的呼吸率即有此現象。呼吸 率的上升與寒害的嚴重程度密切相關,而乙烯釋放量亦會因低溫而促進, 但乙烯釋放量的變化並不隨貯藏天數而倍增,因此呼吸速率應可用於判別 蓮霧寒害嚴重程度之指標。蓮霧貯藏之前處理採用 PE 塑膠袋包裝、溫湯 處理、預冷處理等措施。蓮霧果實以 PE 包裝可明顯減少腐爛率,但在果 色、糖度及硬度方面並無差異,但 PE 袋包裝者果皮較亮無失水現象,而 裸果則有皺縮情形。失水率達 2 % 時果皮即呈顯著之皺縮現象,失水率 達 5% 時果實表面嚴重皺縮、脆度降低、完全失去商品價值。以 55℃ 3 分鐘的溫湯處理,在短期內可有效降低果實的腐爛率,但是 49℃ 處理 20、30 分鐘,果實表面產生塊斑狀燙傷,且果實變軟、失去商品價值。 預冷處理對失水的減少無明顯效果,而是以 PE 袋包裝者對防止失水效果 較好。為了因應蓮霧果實外銷所需的檢疫處理,以 50%CO2+50%N2 或 100%N2 處理蓮霧,結果都不如空氣處理組好,隨通氣時間延長果實腐爛 率也增加,同時果實硬度下降、顏色褪淡,以及高二氧化碳濃度傷害,產 生褐色塊斑狀。因此蓮霧果實不適合氣調檢疫處理。除了蓮霧果實方面的 研究外,本論文另外亦從蓮霧葉片來探討低溫對葉片的影響。結果發現完 全展開之第二節位的新葉,對低溫較敏感,且呼吸率及乙烯釋放率的變化 同果實的反應,低溫皆可促進二者上升。因而可作為寒流來襲植株耐寒力 反應之參考。
The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the physiological changes of wax apple after low temperature storage , the temperature and time requirment for in or out of season fruits ; the suitable treatment for the prevention of cold injury and the quarantine procedure of wax apple for export.The visible symptoms of chilling injury of wax apple fruits include surface pitting , color-fading , water soaking of pulp , mold infection and decay of fruits . Results indicated that if fruits were stored at 0℃ , 5℃ or 10℃ , chilling injury would result . Most suitable storage temperature were 15℃ , 20℃ or 25℃ , but decay rates increased following enhanced storage temperature .Wax apple fruit while stored at a tolerable low temperature for a certain period of time and then transferred to an environment of 25℃ , respiration and ethylene production rates were raised . Low temperature plus long period of storage would cause irreversible damage to fruits by stimulating and maintaining a high respiratory rate .Fruits stored at 0℃ and 5℃ for 9 days exhibited a similar trend of raised temperature after cold storage . The stimulated respiration rate was found closely correlated with degree of chilling injury . Ethylene production was likewise enhanced , but the correspouding production rate failed to show a linear pattern like respiration . Thus , it is suggested the respiration rate is a more useful index of chilling injury than ethylene . Polyethylene bag packing , hot water and precooling treatment are some of the routine procedures employed before low temperature storage .Wax apple fruit wrapped up in a PE bag significautly reduced deterioration rate , and maintained other commercial qualities such as color , sugar content and firmness. Those without PE bag suffered water loss which could reach 2﹪total weight , consequently , with shrinking peels . A 5﹪water loss could cost fruit it''s firmness and other commerial value.Dipping fruits in hot water ( 55℃ ) for 3 min , could temporarily delay fruit detrioration . Hot water treatment ( 49℃ ) for 20 to 30 min caused scald on the skin and softening of fruit. Precooling had no effect on prevention of fruit water loss like PE bag packing .The present day quarantine required that wax apple be perfused with 50﹪ CO2+50﹪N2 or 100﹪N2 . Decay rate increased simutaneously with ethylene gas treatment , and colorfading and reduction in firmness are some of other related side effects . High CO2 concentration brought about brown specks on the fruit. Air treatment was found without such defects , and should be considered as replacement.Apart from the fruit , leaves of wax apple has been tested for it''s response to low temperature .It was found that the fully unfurled young leaves were most sensitive to chilling injury , and pattern of response was similar to the fruit. It is a practical measure to test the overall tolerance to low temperature during a cold spell in winter befor the come into bearing .
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28366
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