Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28369
標題: 穴格構型改善番茄、甘藍種苗盤根及其生育之影響
Studies on the plug cell design for improving pan root and growth of tomato and cabbage seedling
作者: 黃玉梅
Huang, Yu-Mei
關鍵字: Plug cell design
穴格構型
Pan root
Tomato
Cabbage
盤根
番茄
甘藍
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 方型、圓型及改良圓型三種穴盤型式無論是對番茄或甘藍幼苗根系盤根情 形均以穴格最淺之圓型穴盤最嚴重,方型穴格底部亦有盤根現象,而改良 圓型六個稜線具導根作用根系分佈較均勻。番茄幼苗根面積、根鮮重與乾 重明顯受穴盤型式影響,同樣以改良圓型最大,方型最小。但甘藍苗根系 所調查之生長性狀穴盤型式間均無顯著影響,雖然在根面積、根鮮重及乾 重均以改良圓型最多但均未達顯著水準。穴盤型式對番茄及甘藍種苗地上 部生育之影響亦不相同,其中對番茄種苗地上部莖徑、葉面積、地上部鮮 、乾重等有顯著之影響,且均以改良圓型穴盤生長量最高方型最低,而圓 型與改良圓型間無顯性差異。對甘藍幼苗則以莖長、葉數及葉面積穴盤型 式有顯著性差異,莖長以方型最長但其莖徑最小,莖較細長有徒長現象, 葉數與葉面積均以改良圓型最多,不同於番茄的是甘藍幼苗莖徑、地上部 鮮、乾重等三種穴盤型式間無顯性著差異。番茄及甘藍定植後產量均以改 良圓型穴盤所培育之幼苗最高,圓型與方型穴格穴盤產量無顯著性差異。 方型或圓型穴盤經改變穴格構型後均具有減少番茄及甘藍種苗盤根之效果 ,根群在方型側壁漏空(T-A-4)處理穴格中,當根尖生長至漏空部份後, 根會沿著漏空處向下生長,具導根效果,部份根尖在接觸空氣後停止生長 ,刺激支根產生。在去底處理(T-O)穴格中根生長至底部時,根尖停止生 長,無法形成盤根同時可促使支根產生。圓型穴格雖較方型易產生纏繞根 ,但經穴格構型改變後仍有改善現象,其中側壁漏空(R-A-3)處理穴格同 樣可避免根沿著穴格側壁盤繞,而底部U型設計雖可減少根在底部纏繞的 機會。幼苗根尖數目亦因穴格構型處理而提高,側壁漏空之方型穴格所培 育的番茄四週齡苗根尖數較未處理穴格多218%,去底處理亦提高210﹪, 而圓型穴格則以側壁漏空處理較未處理穴格多157%最顯著。四週齡甘藍苗 之根尖數方型穴格同樣以側壁漏空、去底處理,圓型穴格以側壁漏空處理 最為顯著。播於構型改變穴格之五至七週齡番茄及甘藍苗,根表面積及根 的鮮重與乾重均因構型改變而提高,方型穴格以側壁漏空處理最高,去底 處理次之,對照組最低;圓型穴格同樣以側壁漏空處理根的生長量最高, 對照組最低。穴格構型處理使番茄及甘藍壯苗評估指數提高,其中豐產性 相對指數方型穴格以側壁漏空處理指數最高,去底處理次之,而對照組最 低;圓型穴格則以側壁漏空處理豐產性相對指數最高,其種苗品質較佳, 對照組指數最低。定植後由改良穴格所培育之番茄及甘藍種苗因苗期穴格 的導根及空氣斷根作用根系直接生長,定植後10天根尖數方型以完全去底 最多,漏空處理次之,圓型以漏空處理穴格最多對照組最少,且苗株定植 後相對生長速率亦顯著高於未處理組。定植後經改良構型穴格所培育之番 茄苗較習用型穴格苗之始花期提早2-5天(因苗齡及穴格型式而異),早期 產量亦顯著提高。甘藍苗葉球收穫量亦顯著高於未處理穴格。
Three tray types, inverse pyramid cell, rounded pyramid cell, and improved round cell, effect of plug type on root growth of tomato and cabbage seedling. Root circling was serious in rounded inverse pyramid cell which cell depths were not deep enough. There is also some root circles on the inverse pyramid cell seedlings. The improved round tray type with six crest lines has root-inducted function, and roots distribution were uniformed. Root area, root dry and fresh weight of tomato seedlings grown in improved round type plug had the largest growth, but inverse pyramid type showed the smallest. Plug type had no significant affect on growth of cabbage seedling. Although root area, root fresh and dry weight were highest on improved round type plug, all of them had not reached significant level. Effect of plug type on growth stage of tomato and cabbage seedling was different. The results indicated on growth of tomato seedlings that stem diameter, leaf area, and shoot dry weight of tomato seedlings were grown in improved round cell and were higher than those of in inverse pyramid cell. However, there were no significant different between rounded pyramid and improved round cell seedlings in above these characteristics. In cabbage seedling, significant differences were found on stem length, leaf number, and leaf area of cabbage seedling, but not on stem diameter, shoot fresh and dry weight. In inverse pyramid cell seedlings, the stem diameter was the thinnest, but the stem length was the longest and seemed to have over growth. Leaf number and leaf area were largest in improved round cell seedlings. Yield of tomato and cabbage seedlings were highest on improved round plug after they were transplanted and no significant results were found between rounded and inverse pyramid type plug.Changes cell design in inverse pyramid and rounded pyramid plug would improve roots growing in circles of tomato and cabbage seedling. Inverse pyramid cell was treated with a series of narrow vertical openings in the sidewall (T-A-4), root tips of seedling growing to the opening sites, and reaching on the edge of the cell sidewall puncture. So this treatment has root-inducted function. In addition, partial of root tips dried up, stopped growth and stimulated root branch. De-bottom cell treatment (T-O), owing to directly contact with the air, automatically stopped root tips growth as the root grew to the cell bottom. So root pruning effect can improve root growth not only avoided pan root but also promoted growth of branch root. Although rounded pyramid cell seedlings will more give pan root than inverse pyramid cell seedlings did, this deficit was improved after the plug cell structure was changed, especially in cell sidewall treated with a series of narrow vertical openings of the plug (R-A-3) to avoid the root circles. Meanwhile, the U form bottom (R-U) also reduced the possibility of root circling, but forming a U form browning root vestige at the plug cell bottom. The root tips number of 4-week-old tomato seedlings grown in inverse pyramid cell with T-A-4 treatment and de-bottom increased 218%, 210% respectively, than in control plug. The rounded pyramid cell with R-A-3 treatment increased 157%, than in control plug. At the same time, the root tips number of cabbage seedlings grown in all designed cell trays were also significantly more than that in control plug. At 5 to 7-week-old tomato and cabbage seedlings, the root area, root fresh and dry weight were significant higher than those in control plug. Thus, the root growth of tomato and cabbage seedlings grown in inverse pyramid cell tray with T-A-4 treatment was the highest. However, Rounded pyramid cell with R-A-3 treatment was the highest. On the other hand, plug cell structure treatment also increased the growth index of the tomato and cabbage seedlings. The inverse pyramid cell with T- A-4 treatment showed was the highest harvest index, and control was the lowest. Wereas, the rounded pyramid cell with R-A-3 showed the best harvest index and the seedling quality.Owing to root pruning and root induction affect during the seedling stage, root tip number of tomato and cabbage seedlings 10 days after transplanting were highest in de-bottom cell, the next highest in T-A-4 treatment and the lowest in control set in the inverse pyramid cell tray. The seedling growth of R-A-3 treatment after transplanting was higher than that of control set in the rounded pyramid cell tray. The initial flowering point of tomato was earlier two to five days than the control. Early stage of tomato yield was also increased significantly. The cabbage seedling grown in all designed cell trays had the highest head yield than control.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28369
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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