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Influence of Low Temperature on Flower Bud Differentiation of Shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) Bulbs
Two local shallot cultivars "Chia-Li", "Shwei-Chia" and one introduced shallot cultivar "Philippine" were used to study the effects of low temperatures on flower bud differentiation in bulbs. They were treated in 5, 10, 15 and 25℃ for 8 weeks after harvest 1 month or in 10℃ and 25℃ for 8 weeks after harvest 5 months. By this research, the relationship between low temperatures and the differentiation of flower buds in shallot bulbs were expected to be understood. This knowledge can help the sexual reproduction and the breeding of shallot. The weight of bulbs loss cintinuously increased during the period of the treatment in the first experiment. "Philippine", "Chia-Li" and "Shwei-Chia" had 27.2%, 24.7% and 21.7% weight loss, respectively, in the 8th week. The weight loss from bulbs were significantly different among the varieties except the lst week. The weight loss in small bulbs were significantly higher than those in the large bulbs during the period of the treatment. As the treated temperatures increased, the weight of bulbs loss were increased. The shrunken bulbs were absent in all treatments. In the second experiment, the percentage of bulb weight loss was 47.6%, 42.7% and 34.2% in "Chia-Li", "Philippine", "Shwei-Chia", respectively, in the 8th week, It was extremely significantly different among varieties during the treatment except the lst and 2nd week. Both the loss weight and the shrunken bulbs at 25℃were higher than those at 10℃. The highest percentage of the shrunken bulb of "Chia-Li" was 73.3% in the 8th week, then "Philippine" and "Shwei-Chia". The shrunken bulb of "Chia-Li" and "Chwei-Chia" did not have shrunken bulb in the 10℃ treatment. The percentage of sprouting of shallot bulbs among varieties were extremely significantly different. The value was 31.8% in "Philippine", 18.8% in "Chia-Li", and 5.73% in "Shwei-Chia" in the 8th week during the period of treatment. The percentage of sprouting between the large bulbs and small bulbs had not different. The 10℃ treatment had the highest percentage of sprouting to be 29.2%, then 27.8% in 5℃, 16.7% in 15℃, and 1.39% in 25℃ in the 8th week. The sprouting of bulbs in 10℃ were higher than those in 25℃. The flower bud differentiation of "Chia-Li" shallot bulbs was not observed in all treatments. In "Shwei-Chia", the percentage of sprouting was 12.5% in the large bulb and 37.5% in small bulbs in the 8th week. In "Philippine", there were 25.0% flower bud in large bulbs and 12.5% in small bulbs before temperature treatment. The highest number of flower bud in "Philippine" was observed in 10℃ in the 6th week during the period of treatment. This value was 62.5%. There was 50.0% flower bud in large bulbs in 25℃ in the 8th week, and 12.5% in small bulbs in the 4th week. After the temperature treatment, the bulbs were planted in the field. There was not bolting in all treatments in the first experiment. The flower bud differentiation in bulbs was not observed from the paraffin section in the second experiment. But the Bolting was observed in the 4th week after planted. The percent of bolting from bulbs treated for 4, 6, 8 weeks in 10℃ had 6.67%, 6.67% and 10.0%, respectively, in the 8th week. The tillers in bulbs after planted were affected by the varieties but not the treated temperatur and weeks. In "Chia-Li" had the highest, seven stalks in the 5th week after panted planted. There were 5~6 stalks in the bulbs of "Shwei-Chia" and "Philippine" after planted eight weeks.
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