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The Effects of Government Policies on Rice Prices and Marketing Margin in the Philippines
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|摘要:||隨著米價和運銷價差的增長，關於行銷商在菲律賓稻米市場上的濫用和國家政策對這些行銷商有利的影響也再一次浮上檯面。為了特別探討此問題，這篇文章以描述性及OLS回歸分析來評價和量化政府稻米政策的影響，並以 National Food Authority (NFA) 自1990年1月 至2008年12月的稻米產地價、零售價和稻米運銷價差進行探討。結指出，大體上，稻米政策顯然在許多方面(有時相互矛盾)影響到稻米價格。當政府想提高產地價格時，其欲降低零售價的政策卻把產地價格降低。同時, 高產地價格的政策無意中也提高了零售價, 甚至, 政策似乎對零售價產生更多影響力，這表明政府的重點在於穩定稻米零售價。關於運銷價差，政策中只有NFA補助稻米價格有明顯的影響，價格因此降低，這個結果說明此政策至少有助於消弭可能的行銷商之濫用。有趣的是對商業庫存股票的結果都啟發一個對稻米價格和運銷價差的較強商業影響，從而可能加劇上述的看法。|
With recent increases in rice prices and marketing margin, the perception regarding the abuses of marketing agents in the Philippine rice market and the favorable effect of government policies on these agents are again on the rise. This paper explicitly informs this issue by using descriptive and OLS regression analysis to evaluate and quantify the effects of government rice policies, expressed through the National Food Authority (NFA), on the farmgate and retail prices and marketing margin of rice from January 1990 to December 2008. Results showed that, in general, rice policies significantly affect rice prices in many and sometimes conflicting ways. While government wants to increase farmgate prices, policies that attempts to reduce retail prices reduce farmgate prices. Meanwhile, policies that are geared on raising farmgate prices inadvertently increase retail prices. Moreover, policies seem to exert more effect on the retail prices, indicating that the government focus is on the stabilization of rice consumer prices. With regard to marketing margin, only the NFA subsidized rice price among the government policies has had the significant effect, in that it reduces this margin. This result indicates that the government, at least through this policy, may have helped tame possible marketing agents' abuses. Interestingly, the results for commercial inventory stock all suggest a strong commercial sector effect on rice prices and marketing margin, thus, likely fueling the perception mentioned above.
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