Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28497
標題: 台灣水污染防治法對製造業總要素生產力之影響---以上市上櫃公司為例
The Impact of Taiwanese Water Pollution Control Act on Total Factor Productivity of Manufacturers: the Case of Listed Companies
作者: 張雅婷
Chang, Ya-Ting
關鍵字: Water Pollution Control Act
台灣水污染防治法
manufacturing
cost function
Poter Hyposisis
製造業
成本函數
波特假說
出版社: 應用經濟學系所
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摘要: 一般來說,經濟發展與環境保護之間通常不易取得平衡,隨著經濟快速的發展,各產業產量逐漸增加,用水量也漸漸增加,水污染問題隨之愈趨嚴重,政府部門積極制定相關環境保護政策來限制因經濟過度發展導致的水污染排放,隨著時間的推延經過,為了配合大環境的改變,台灣水污染防治法陸續的增修。 在台灣,製造業對經濟發展貢獻良多,在產業上扮演著十分重要的角色,然而最近製造業有多起水污染案例陸續爆發並受罰。水污染防治法的實施經常直接影響著生產者,廠商面對水污染防治法的限制與規定,通常須額外承受污染防治的成本,諸如購置減量設備,改變產量與要素投入之組合以符合水污染防治法的規定。 因此,本文試圖藉由估計成本函數,透過最小平方迴歸分析,實證台灣民國八十年、民國八十六年、民國八十九年、民國九十二年及民國九十六年制定之水污染防治法對製造業總要素生產力之影響,並蒐集來自台灣經濟新報資料庫、中華民國行政院主計處總體統計資料庫以及中央銀行利率資料庫的次級資料來分析。資料期間跨越民國八十年到民國九十七年,研究產業包括以食品製造業、塑膠製造業、紡織製造業、電機製造業、電器製造業、化學製造業、造紙製造業、基本金屬製造業、橡膠製造業、電子製造業、汽車製造業、石油及煤製品製造業及其他製造業等12個產業。估計之實證結果期望能作為政策制定者制定政策時之參考依據。 實證結果發現民國八十年、民國八十六、民國八十九年與民國九十二年年實施之水污染防治法放流水標準使製造業總成本顯著上升大約,總要素生產力下降。民國九十六年實施之水污染防治法放流水標準使製造業總成本顯著下降,總要素生產力上升。顯示隨水污染防治法規範愈嚴格,愈可能使廠商總要素生產力上升。 而各產業實證結果顯示台灣水污染防治法之實施,確實可能影響各廠商之總要素生產力,其中可能使食品製造業、化學製造業、造紙製造業、橡膠製造業、基本金屬製造業、電子業與石油及煤製品製造業總成本上升,總要素生產力下降;可能使塑膠製造業、紡織製造業、電機製造業、電器製造業、造紙製造業、橡膠製造業、電子製造業、基本金屬製造業、汽車製造業、石油及煤製品製造業總成本下降,總要素生產力上升。
Generally speaking, economic development and environmental protection is not easy to find a balance. With the ongoing economic development, the government enacts policies relating to environmental protection to limit water pollution emissions caused by overdevelopment. Manufacturing industry plays an important role in Taiwan's economic development. However, day after day, a large number of cases reveal the fact that manufacturing plants are one of the major causes of water pollution. Recently, Taiwanese Water Pollution Control Act has been amended for several times. However, water pollution environmental regulations usually have a direct impact on the producer. These regulations may change the level of investment and input combinations. Many companies are also fined for this reason. In addition, companies complying with them may bear additional cost for the installation of pollution abatement facilities. As a result, by estimating the cost function and using econometric methods such as fixed-effect method or random-effect method, this thesis is trying to examine the impact of Taiwanese Water Pollution Control Act on total factor productivity of manufacturers. Data are collected through secondary data from Taiwan Economic Journal Data Bank, National Statistics Data Bank, and Central Bank of the Republic of China. The data includes 12 manufacturing industries from 1991 to 2008. Research industries consist of food manufacturing, plastic manufacturing, textile mills, machinery manufacturing, electrical manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, paper manufacturing, basic metal industry, rubber industry, electronics manufacturing, automotive industry, petroleum and coal products manufacturing, and other manufacturing. We look forward to the results, and hope they will be useful for policy-makers when amending the law. The empirical results indicate that the impact of Taiwanese Water Pollution Control Act effluent standards had a negative effect on manufacturers in 1991, 1987, 2000 and 2003. The Act in 1991, 1987, 2000 and 2003 caused manufacturers' total cost increased and total factor productivity decreased. It also indicates that the impact of Taiwanese Water Pollution Control Act effluent standards had a positive effect on manufacturers in 2007. The Act in 2007 lead to manufacturers' total cost declined and total factor productivity increased. The empirical results of different industries in Taiwan shows Taiwanese Water Pollution Control Act may affect the total factor productivity of all firms truly. The Act caused food manufacturing, chemical manufacturing, paper manufacturing, rubber industry, basic metal industry, electronics manufacturing, and Petroleum and coal products manufacturing's total cost increased and total factor productivity decrease; The Act caused plastic manufacturing, textile mills, machinery manufacturing, electrical manufacturing, paper manufacturing, rubber industry, basic metal industry, electronics manufacturing, automotive industry and petroleum and coal products manufacturing's total cost declined and total factor productivity risen.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28497
其他識別: U0005-2506201010212300
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