Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28506
標題: 四季葱健康種苗生產體系及繁殖技術之研究
Studies on Production System and Propagation Techniques of Healthy Szu Chi Tsung (Allium fistulosum L.) Seedlings
作者: 劉兆烘
Liu, Chao-Hong
關鍵字: Szu Chi Tsung (Allium fistulosum L.)
四季葱
ISSR-PCR
Green Onion tissue culture
健康種苗生產體系
簡單重複序列間之DNA片段
青葱組織培養
出版社: 園藝學系
摘要: 本研究試驗結果顯示,以冬、春作均較適宜栽培未感染病毒之四季葱品種(系),且冬作最適宜栽培'新竹821'及'桃園3號'等二個四季葱品種(系),春作最適宜栽培'蘭陽1號'四季葱,另'蘭陽1號'四季葱不適宜在夏作栽培。不同栽培期作對青葱株高、分蘗數、葉數及鞘長等園藝性狀影響極顯著;病毒病對青葱生育的影響主要為單叢重、株高與葉數,且對北葱的危害明顯大於四季葱。海拔高度與栽培期作對青葱罹患病毒病之研究結果,顯示低溫高濕環境確易引發病毒病害,且青葱品種對病毒病的抵抗性會隨栽培環境改變而出現差異性。 在平地冬、春作以'蘭陽3號'北葱對病毒病最具耐病性,高海拔冬作則以'蘭陽1號'四季葱較其他供試之四季葱及北葱品種更具病毒病抵抗性。且不同海拔與栽培期作均以實生苗株較分生苗株更具耐病性。四季葱栽培密度對葉片數有絕對影響,對株高、分蘗數、鞘長和莖徑的影響則視品種而定,栽培密度愈高,葉數和分蘗數也愈多,莖徑卻愈細,但不影響單株重。 本研究結果顯示,平地春作期非常適宜四季葱與北葱採種,而'蘭陽3號'北葱在平地冬作期栽培,無論是分生苗或實生苗植株之所需的結實日數均相同,其開花性狀不受苗株繁殖方式或植株是否感染病毒病而有所差異。中海拔地區的冬作期最適合'蘭陽1號'四季葱採種,最不適宜'新竹821'品種四季葱的採種。另四季葱植株開花授粉期,常適值中海拔地區的高降雨量期,青葱授粉嚴重受影響,且高濕所引發的銹病與紫斑病等病害也會造成花梗嚴重倒伏,嚴重影響採種數量與品質,因此利用中海拔冬作期從事青葱採種工作時,應加強防雨措施。 本研究以ISSR-PCR技術分析六個青葱品種(系)間之遺傳親緣關係,結果顯示六種青葱品種(系)之相似性係數介於0.95與0.87之間。六個青葱品種之遺傳親緣關係可概分為二大群組: '新莊'、'蘭陽1號'、'蘭陽3號'、'新竹821'、'桃園3號'屬於第一群,'新竹'為第二群。在第一群中又可細分為三亞群:第一亞群為'新莊'與'蘭陽1號',第二亞群為'蘭陽3號'與'新竹821',第三亞群為'桃園3號'。 以ISSR-PCR技術分析'蘭陽3號'品種實生苗之60個種子的後裔苗株,顯示,在60個種子中有60% (36/60)的種子相似性係數值在1.00,72% (43/60)的種子相似性係數值在0.97以上。此結果顯示自然授粉之'蘭陽3號'種子,其種子遺傳型質是很純正。 本研究切取'蘭陽1號'、'桃園3號'及'新竹821'三品種四季葱之帶二片葉原體之生長點,培養在BP、BT1、BT2及BT3四種培養基中,以固體方式進行培養,結果顯示以BP培養基最適宜,不但存活率高,產生之芽梢數目也較多。其誘導的芽稍再移到含B5配方基本鹽類添加0.1ppm NAA之培養基,發根率也最佳。若能配合瓶內馴化技術之應用,提高小苗存活率,可達青葱組織培養苗商業生產的目標。
The results of this study reveal that winter and spring are more suitable to cultivate virus-free Szu Chi Tsung. 'Hsin Chu 821' and 'Tao Yuan No.3' performed best in the winter, and 'Lan Yang No.1' performed best in the spring-time. Also, 'Lan Yang No.1' is not suitable to be cultivated in the summer. Different crop season significantly affects horticultural characteristics such as—plant height, tiller number, leaf number, and sheath length. The viral diseases mainly affect Green Onion growth in hill weight, plant height, and leaf number. However, the viral diseases were observed to be more harmful to Pei Tsung than it is to Szu Chi Tsung. Research showed that increase in the chance of virus infection by low temperature and high humidity, and the susceptibility to viral diseases was changed in according the cultivated environments. In low land area, 'Lan Yang No.3' Pei Tsung had the highest tolerance against viral diseases. On the other hand, 'Lan Yang No.1' Szu Chi Tsung had the highest resistance against viral diseases in high altitude area. In general, seedling propagated from seeds had higher tolerance to viral infection than those from tiller. Significant correlation was found between planting density of Szu Chi Tsung and leaf number, while the effects of planting density on plant height, tiller number, sheath length, and stem diameter were dependent on the cultivars (lines). The higher plant density, the higher the leaf number and tiller number, and the less the plant diameter were found in the Szu Chi Tsung. The results of this study reveal that spring in low land area is very suitable for the seed production of Szu Chi Tsung and Pei Tsung. For 'Lan Yang No.3' Pei Tsung's production during winter in low land area, the days to seed maturation were the same for both seedlings propagated from seeds and those from tiller. Winter in middle altitude area is most suitable for seed production of 'Lan Yang No.1' Szu Chi Tsung, and is least suitable for 'Hsin Chu 821' Szu Chi Tsung. Also, the flowering and pollination periods of 'Szu Chi Tsung' often coincide with the high rainfall season in middle altitude area. The high humidity leads to occurrence of diseases, such as rust and purple blotch. They can cause the lodge of flower stalk, and severely lowering the quality and quantity of seed production. Therefore, prevention of the rain damage must be taken seriously when producing seeds for Green Onion in middle altitude area. ISSR-PCR was used to analyze genetic relationships among six Green Onion cultivar (lines). The results show that the coefficients of similarity were between 0.95 and 0.87. These six cultivars (lines) can be separated into two groups according to their genetic relationships—'Hsin Chuang', 'Lan Yang No.1', 'Lan Yang No.3', 'Hsin Chu 821', and 'Tao Yuan No.3' in one group, and 'Hsin Chu' in the second group. The first group can then be further separated into three sub-groups: 1) 'Hsin Chuang' and 'Lan Yang No.1'; 2) 'Lan Yang No.3' and 'Hsin Chu 821'; 3) 'Tao Yuan No.3'. Using ISSR-PCR to analyze 60 progenies of 'Lan Yang No.3' generating from seeds, we found that among the 60 seeds, 60% had a coefficient of similarity of 1.00, and 72% of the seeds had a coefficient of similarity higher than 0.97. This indicates that the open pollination seeds of 'Lan Yang No.3' have a high genetic purity. The shoot tips of three Szu Chi Tsung cultivars (lines), namely 'Lan Yang No.1', 'Tao Yuan No.3', and 'Hsin Chu 821', were cut and cultivated in four types of solid culture media: BP, BT1, BT2, and BT3. The results indicate that BP is the most suitable medium for shoot tip propagation; not only the survival rate is high, but also the number of shoots regenerated is high. The regenerated shoots were then transferred into the BP medium with addition of 0.1ppm NAA could optimize the rate of root regeneration. If acclimation technology of in vitro plantlets could be applied to increase plantlets survival rate, the goal to commercially producing Green Onion tissue culture seedling can be reached.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28506
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

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