Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28606
標題: 水耕葉菜類營養元素吸收之研究
Studies on the Mineral Nutrient Uptake of Leafy Vegetables in Hydroponic System
作者: 余津聚
Yu, Jin-Jiu
關鍵字: hydroponic
水耕
leafy vegetable
mineral nutrient
葉菜
營養元素
出版社: 園藝學系所
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摘要: 本研究利用Hoagland配方養液水耕栽培臺灣主要短期葉菜類,包括芥藍、小白菜、青梗白菜、萵苣、茼蒿、蕹菜及莧菜,調查其生長期間植株生育狀況、礦物元素吸收消耗量,以及植株養分累積含量等。藉以了解各短期葉菜類對營養元素的需求及礦物元素對作物生育的相關性。 在試驗作物兩片葉展開定植後20天的栽培期間,各作物養液EC值多落在2.2~2.6 ms/cm之間,因植株水分吸收與蒸散亦大,故養液EC值多呈上升貌,但仍屬於作物能忍受範圍。養液pH值部份因Hoagland配方以硝酸態氮為主要氮源,栽培過程中硝酸根大量被吸收,使各作物的養液pH值皆有上升的趨勢。但除了蕹菜、芥藍及小白菜栽培後期養液pH值偏高外,大致多仍在pH 6.5以內。 在葉片營養元素含量方面,芥藍、小白菜、萵苣、茼蒿及蕹菜等5種作物地上部的氮濃度隨著栽培日數增加有下降的趨勢。茼蒿與萵苣植體中磷含量在整個栽培期間無大幅變化,且於採收時分別維持在0.87 %及0.79 %之外,其他菜種皆隨著栽培日數的增加而顯著下降。鉀元素是供試作物中含量最高的礦物元素,以茼蒿與萵苣最終濃度最高(9.91 %及8.22 %)。鈣濃度以小白菜最高(5.8 %),芥藍及青梗白菜也有相對高的含量。鎂元素因受硝酸根的促進及鉀元素的競爭,本試驗中以莧菜、芥藍、青梗白菜及小白菜的最終濃度較高,約在0.58 %~0.67 %之間,而茼蒿、蕹菜及萵苣的濃度則較低,僅0.31 %~0.39 %。鐵元素易受環境因子影響而破壞或降低作物吸收量,本試驗植株鐵濃度大多偏低,應多補充鐵源以維持植物正常生育。錳以蕹菜累積顯著高於其他作物,在整個生育過程其錳濃度皆較其他作物為高。鋅濃度則是茼蒿顯著高於他者,可知茼蒿對於鋅的累積效果較其他六者為大。各作物的銅離子濃度均低,除茼蒿外,其他菜種皆隨著栽培日數增加而有下降趨勢,整體而言以蕹菜銅濃度高於其他作物。 經調查結果可知,Hoagland養液配方適合小白菜等7種葉菜作物栽培,但各作物對礦物營養吸收與消耗的情形則略有不同。若能在栽培過程中適當調整氮源比例,並且適時補充微量元素,對於植株生育及產量應能有正面效益。此外,各作物養液吸收量與植株累積量有所不同,未來若能針對不同菜種調查前述兩者間之相關性,或許可作為田間參考,減少試驗分析步驟。
In this experiment, Taiwan main leafy vegetables, including Chinese kale, Pak-choi, chingensai, lettuce, garland chrysanthemum, water convolvulus, and Chinese amaranth, were grown hydroponically in Hoagland solution. Comparing the plant growth, plant element contents, and the solution element consumptions, the demand for nutrient elements, the relationship between mineral elements and plant growth in various leafy vegetables were understood. The EC values of nutrient solution were usually 2.2~2.6 ms/cm during 20 days after two leaves expansion. The EC values were increased mostly due to water uptake and transpiration. But the values were in the tolerable range of vegetables. In the Hoagland solution, the main nitrogen source was from nitrate. Hence, the pH values of nutrient solution increased during cultivation due to largely absorbtion of nitrate. The pH values of most vegetable nutrient solutions were less than 6.5, except for water convolvulus and Chinese kale, at the end of cultivation. The element concentrations of the shoots showed that the nitrogen concentrations of Chinese kale, Pak-choi, lettuce, garland chrysanthemum, and water convolvulus had a downward trend with the increase of the planting days. The phosphorus concentrations of garland chrysanthemum and lettuce did not significantly change, they kept about 0.87 % and 0.79 % in the end of the experiment. On the other hand, the phosphorus concentrations in other vegetables had a downward trend with the increase of the planting days. Potassium is the largest mineral element in all vegetables, and garland chrysanthemum & lettuce had the highest concentration about 9.91 % and 8.22 % in the end of the experiment. Pak-choi had the highest calcium concentration (5.8 %), Chinese kale and chingensai also had a relatively high levels. Magnesium can be promoted by nitrate and in competition with potassium. In this experiment, the magnesium concentrations of Chinese amaranth, Chinese kale, chingensai, and Pak-choi were increased about 0.58 %~0.67 %, compared to others; and that of garland chrysanthemum, water convolvulus, and lettuce were relative low, just 0.31 %~0.39 %. Iron can be affected by environmental factors easily, and the amount of plant uptake also be reduced. The iron concentrations in this experiment were mostly low, iron should be supplied continually to maintain the normal growth of plants. Accumulation of manganese in water convolvulus was significantly higher than others in the whole period. The zinc concentration in garland chrysanthemum was significantly higher than others. Therefore, we found the zinc cumulative effect in garland chrysanthemum was larger than others. The copper concentrations in all vegetables, expect for garland chrysanthemum, were low and decreased during the period of cultivation. Overall, the copper concentration in water convolvulus was higher than others. In conclusion, Hoagland formula was suitable for these vegetables of cultivation, but the nutrient consumption and accumulation of each vegetable was slightly different. If we can adjustment the ratio of nitrogen appropriately or add trace elements timely, it should be able to benefit for plant growth and yield. In addition, although the nutrient element contents and the solution element consumptions in these leafy vegetables were not equal, we can analysis their correlation in the future. It should be as a field reference and may reduce steps of analysis.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/28606
其他識別: U0005-1808201114563200
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